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Our GPU Mining Journey – GPU Breakdown


I have been meaning to write a post breaking down my GPUs, giving you the breakdown on my journey so far.

Mining has been good recently, I started in December 2020 with a single GPU in my gaming rig and have now accumulated 29 graphics cards delivering 1.1 GH/s on Ethereum.

Just a quick warning, gpu mining can be addictive. I have spent a lot of time trying to get my rigs to be efficient and also increasing the hash rates to maximize the potential of the cards.

This post will probably expand in the future to include my new gpu’s, so please bookmark and check back with us in the future.

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Graphics Card Breakdown

Firstly, to start with the first GPU, it was a RX 580 for my gaming PC. Great card which I wanted to use for VR. It did not quite have the power so I upgraded to a 5700 XT, this gave me 2 graphics cards. I built 2 gaming PC’s and started mining these on windows when not in use.

RX580 8 GB

This is the one, I am sure a lot of you are familiar with it. You have to do a bios mod linked to get its full potential of 31-32 MH’s. Now I have a few more of these model. 4 In total running at:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 720
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1150
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2100 
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

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Watch this space – More of our GPUs coming soon.

6600 XT / 5700 XT Mining Rig Build – 197 MH/s!


A great rig to build, this is my AMD 6600 XT / 5700 XT mining rig running on HiveOS. However, this tutorial can be used with any operating system and or Nvidia cards as well.

When comparing Nvidia and AMD graphics cards, the main difference is in the chips at the core. Each is compatible with a host of different cryptocurrency algorithms.

6600 XT / 5700 XT Mining Rig Build Parts List

Before starting the build, the first thing you need to do is research and purchase the required parts, here is my parts list for this build and reason for purchase.

Part ListReasonOur Choice
CPU: AMD Athlon 3000G 2-Core, 4-Thread Unlocked Desktop Processor with Radeon GraphicsThis comes with a cooler so no need to order separately, has onboard graphics so you don’t loose any MH/s on a display and runs at a low TDP of 35 watts.View Here
Motherboard: X470 GAMING PLUS MAX6 pcie slots, perfect for a 6 GPU Build and generally good on price. In my view good value for money, it has 4g decoding. View Here
RAM: Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3200MHz C16 Desktop Memory KitBuy a 16 gig kit and split the ram for 2 rigs – it works out cheaper. View Here
Fans: upHere 5-Pack 120mm Silent Intelligent Control RGB Fan Adjustable Colorful Fans with Controller and Remote,PF1206-5I bought the no RGB Antecs – but on checking again now I would go with these – loving the RGB. View Here
Boot Drive: SanDisk Ultra Flair USB 3.0 Flash Drive

If you are not CPU mining this should do the job. Otherwise check out our parts list for a SSD – either is fine its just preference. View Here
Server PSU:  1200W 94% Platinum Common Slot Power Supply PSUI have left room for expansion on this rig – 1200 watts is probably a bit overkill. But this does not make much noise at these levels and are cheaper than ATX PSUs and come with platinum efficiency.View Here
Risers: Ubit PCIe Riser, 3 in 1 1x to 16x Pcie Riser Board with LED Light, Custom-made 60 cm USB 3.0 cable, 3 Power Options (6 Pin/SATA/Molex) – Ethereum Bitcoin Crypto Currency Mining – 6 PackNever had any issues with these risers, they have been reliable for this build. View Here
Motherboard Power: PCI-E 6PIN Input DC 12V 300W DC-ATX-300W 24Pin PICO ATX Switch PSU Power Su E1B9This Pico switch with a male 6 pin to the breakout board will work – although if something is going to go wrong it could be this – you could also use a cheap ATX PSU alongside this to power the motherboard and utilize this to power the GPUs. View Here
Frame: Mining Rig Frame, Up to 8GPU Mining Rig Case Steel Open Air Miner Mining Frame, Mining AccessoriesEasy to assemble – came with a power button and it was cheaper than a Veddha which I also have, only criticism would be if you wanted to stack cases. View Here
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GPU Overclock Settings

Please adjust the overclocks in small increments to find the ideal sweet spot for your GPU. Some GPUs will perform differently due to the silicone lottery so please do your own research.

These are all HiveOS settings – if you are using windows try doubling them.

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ASUS ROG Strix AMD Radeon RX 5700XT Overclocked 8G GDDR6 HDMI DisplayPort Gaming Graphics Card 

Sapphire Technology Pulse AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

PowerColor Fighter AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

ASUS Dual AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT OC Edition 8GB GDDR6 Gaming Graphics Card 

GIGABYTE Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming OC PRO 8G Graphics Card, WINDFORCE 3X Cooling System

Ethereum 52 MH/s - DPM 5
Core Clock (CClock): 1380
Memory Clock (MClock): 910
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Rig Assembly

  1. Research and buy parts
  2. Un-package everything
  3. Install an OS on SSD/USB Flash Drive – ready for installing on step 4 (See HiveOS install or choose an OS of your choice – I recommend HiveOS, it makes everything easier as its build for mining).
  4. Install processor, RAM and Boot Drive on motherboard
  5. Plug in all riser cables (only applicable if you are dual mining) or a cheap GPU only while you complete installation and setup – this can be removed afterwards.
  6. Place motherboard on mount.
  7. Plug in SSD/SATA hard drive
  8. Connect all GPUs to riser cables and fasten them to custom case. You might need to experiment for optimal spacing to keep the cards cool.
  9. Plug in all power supply connections.
  10. Connect mouse, monitor and keyboard and an internet connection
  11. Check all connections once more
  12. Fire it up and install the operating system and mining software (see additional instructions below).
  13. Make sure fans are fully functional. Start the mining software, tweak settings for maximum hash rates and let it run!

Motherboard Software Configuration

Every motherboard is different but in general you want to do these updates.

  1. Update the motherboard to the latest BIOS using a USB thumb drive.
  2. Configure Motherboard BIOS with the following settings changes:
    • PCIE Subset settings – set these to Gen 1
    • Above 4G Decoding (cryptocurrency mining) should be set to Enabled
    • Turn off HD Audio
    • Save and reboot

HiveOS Installation

HiveOS have a great guide on getting started, here is our referral link:-

Setting up a Flight Sheet

  1. First step add your wallet
  2. Select coin
  3. Select the wallet you just added
  4. Select your pool
  5. Click configure pool and select the closest server
  6. Select the miner
  7. Click Apply and then Click the to the moon button.

Check out some of our rig builds

GPU Reviews

Finally, please check out some more of our graphics card reviews.

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RX 6600 Non XT Mining Overview and Overclocks – 30 MH/s at 55 watts!


Awesome job yet again AMD, the AMD Radeon RX 6600 non XT version offers an attractive hash rate for Ethereum mining when power consumption is considered at just 55 watts. The AMD RX 6600 XT already offered an attractive hash rate relative to its power draw, and now the AMD RX 6600 Non XT looks to compete with it and also the RTX 3060 for Ethereum mining.

RX 6600 Non XT Mining Hashrates

EthereumEthash30.0 Mh/s55 Watts

RX 6600 Non XT Mining Overclocks

Next, we are going to talk about overclocks, please change in small increments to find the ideal sweet spot for your GPU. Some GPUs will perform differently due to the silicone lottery so please do your own research.

RX 6600 Non XT Eth Mining Overclocks

If two numbers are provided, first will be for Windows the second will be for a Linux-based Mining OS.

  • Power Limit (%): 55 Watts / VDD 620
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1305 / 1000
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 1900 / 950
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Flux Overclocks – 18.6 Sol/s

RX 6600 ZelHash (FLUX) Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 660
  • Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS)
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1350 (Locked)
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 950 (Locked)
  • Memory Voltage1100 (Locked)

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About this item

  • Video Memory: 8GB GDDR6
  • Stream Processor: 1792
  • Game Clock: 2044MHz
  • Boost Clock: 2491MHz
  • Memory Clock: 14 Gbps

Well with the recent crash and profitability, efficiency is king so I would pick these up for mining. Check out eBay there are lots on offer at the moment.

If you need any mining parts, please check out our selection below.

GPU Reviews

Finally, please check out some more of our graphics card reviews.

Thank you for reading – Please follow us on social media.


Best Mining GPUs


Check out our list of the best mining GPUs, below are links to all our reviews including, hashrates, overclocks and any GPU issues and advice including updating Bios Mods and Thermals.

The below hashrates are only a guide as these can be affected by a number of variables such as the silicone lottery, variations in models and bios settings and overclocks.

I will be updating this with lots more info in the future. Including Flux, RVN and much more.

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T-Rex: Unlock on LHR GPU Dual Mining – Awesome Job!


You can now DUAL mine ETH (~30%) and other coins (~70%) simultaneously with LHR cards using more of its potential.

Available combinations along with memory requirements are:

  • ETH+ERGO (8GB+)
  • ETH+RVN (8GB+ on linux, 10GB+ on win)
  • ETH+CFX (10GB+)

WIKI – https://github.com/trexminer/T-Rex/wiki/LHR

Mining Tips:

Please see “LHR-unlock” bat/sh files for configuration examples.

T-Rex’s “–lhr-tune” is set to 30 by default, but can be set higher or lower depending on your needs / overclock settings.

For all dual mining combinations a high memory overclock is recommended to reduce the chance of LHR lock.

Additionally for ERGO, since it’s known to be LHR limited, find overclock settings that don’t trigger LHR locks in single mode, and then use them for ETH+ERGO dual mode.

* (ethash) “standard” LHR unlock changes and improvements:

Automatically detect LHR cards even if –lhr-tune is not specified (except 3060 rev.1, for them you still need to manually set –lhr-tune)

New parameter –lhr-low-power reduces power consumption in LHR mode at a cost of a slightly lower hashrate (start from –lhr-tune 68)

Change scale of –lhr-tune from [1-8] to percentage of the GPU’s full hashrate the miner tries to achieve. The old values in the [1-8] will be automatically converted to percentage, no change required.

Recommended starting LHR tune values: 71 in normal mode, 68 in low power consumption mode.

* (ethash) Allow dual ETH+ZIL mining without having to rely on proxying your ETH traffic through a ZIL-pool (see “ETH+ZIL-ezil” bat/sh file on how to start it)

Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

No you can realize its full potential – check out this 3080Ti.

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EVGA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti FTW3 Ultra Gaming, 12G-P5-3967-KR, 12GB


Linux: https://trex-miner.com/download/t-rex-0.24.0-linux.tar.gz

Windows: https://trex-miner.com/download/t-rex-0.24.0-win.zip

Github: https://github.com/trexminer/T-Rex/releases

First Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/embed/aRDsV5qlfuQ

NFT Marketplace Review


Estimated reading time: 13 minutes

With NFTs exploding in popularity—and price—we take a look at the marketplaces where you can buy and sell these unique digital art tokens. Please do research on the artist, I learnt this lesson when one of my cheaper NFTs was delisted.

In brief

  • NFTs, or non-fungible tokens, are unique crypto tokens that are linked to digital content, such as artwork.
  • A number of NFT marketplaces have sprung up where users can buy and sell NFTs.

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I am going to be going through this list in the next few weeks and will update with my user experiences.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have been around for a few years now, but 2021 was the year they exploded into the public consciousness.

The cryptographically unique tokens represent a title of ownership over digital content such as art, music or videos—but it’s the digital art scene that lit a fire under the NFT market, with record-breaking sales such as Beeple’s $69 million auction at Christie’s grabbing headlines the world over.about:blank

Since then, enthusiasts have seized on one NFT craze after another, dropping thousands (and in some cases millions) of dollars on CryptoPunksBored Apes and Loot.

NFT Art and Collectables for Beginners: The Must Have Guide for Understanding Non Fungible Tokens (NFTs)

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But where are people buying these NFTs, you might ask? A thriving virtual high street of NFT marketplaces has sprung up, selling digital art and collectibles at every conceivable price point. Here’s a run-through of some of the leading platforms.

Read our NFT beginner’s guide


OpenSea is the original peer-to-peer NFT marketplace, and far and away the largest. At the time of writing, it has a total trading volume of over $6.5 billion (according to analytics platform DappRadar), offering NFTs of everything from in-game items and collectibles, to artwork, music, GIFs, and more.

Signing up is as easy as connecting your MetaMask wallet, although other wallets including Coinbase Wallet, Bitski, Formatic and more are also supported.


Once you’re connected, buying an NFT is a simple process; you need to browse through the various collections or searching for something that takes your fancy, before putting in an offer and seeing if it’s accepted.

Uploading your own NFT creation is child’s play, too. Simply head to the “Create” tab, connect your wallet as a creator and you can upload your NFT, fill out the description, and wait for the millions to roll in.

Review: Do research on the artist my first NFT was delisted – the user interface is good but it takes time time to do the transfers on Coinbase wallet, up to 45 mins.

2.Axie Marketplace

NFT-powered video game Axie Infinity plays host to the second-largest NFT marketplace, with a total trading volume of more than $2.1 billion on Dappradar. It trades exclusively in Axies: cute, Pokémon-like digital pets which players can buy and trade on the Axie Marketplace.

You can also create new Axies via the game’s built-in breeding mechanics and sell them on the Marketplace. Unlike art NFTs, which are collected for collecting’s sake, Axie Infinity’s NFTs have a purpose: you can use them in-game to battle against monsters and other players, earning tokens that can be put towards breeding new creatures. So lucrative have Axie Infinity’s NFTs proven, that some players in the Philippines and Indonesia are making a living through breeding and trading them. 

Axie Infinity is one of the most complex NFT services for new users to use, though, and you’ll have to jump through a number of hoops before you can even begin to play the game.

Axie Marketplace

Alongside an Ethereum wallet such as MetaMask, you’ll also need to set up a Ronin wallet, deposit ETH to Ronin, and buy a minimum of three Axies from the Axie market (which will set you back several hundred dollars). That’s not ideal for casual passersby, but it’s not beyond the capabilities of a seasoned crypto user.

3.CryptoPunks/Larva Labs

One of the earliest examples of NFTs on the Ethereum network, CryptoPunks is a series of 10,000 randomly generated characters with a pixel art aesthetic and unique attributes. While they could originally be grabbed for free, the only way you can own one today is to buy one.

That means heading to CryptoPunks creator Larva Labs’ marketplace, where the majority of sales take place. And buying one costs a lot; currently, the lowest-priced Punk will set you back 94.99 ETH (around $285,000), while the most valuable one sold on the marketplace (number 3100), traded hands for an absolutely insane $7.58 million. That explains Larva Labs’ all-time trading volume of $1.3 billion, then.


To get started, simply connect your MetaMask wallet, search through the list of available Punks (ones with red backgrounds are for sale), and enter your bid.

The hardest part of the process is convincing yourself to part with such a ludicrous amount of cash, but hey, that’s on you. The value of art is in the beholder, after all.

4.NBA Top Shot Marketplace

One of the first NFT series to gain traction with the wider public, NBA Top Shot is a set of digital trading cards featuring NBA video highlight clips. Once you purchase a pack, clips are stored in your secure, encrypted blockchain-verified wallet, where you can view them or re-sell them on the NBA Top Shot Marketplace.

The secret to NBA Top Shot’s success is that creators Dapper Labs have made it simple for the mainstream user to get started. The easiest way to sign up for NBA Top Shot is to link your Google account to Dapper, after which you’ll be asked to enter your phone number for SMS authentication.

NBA Top Shot

Following that, there are a few account setup steps to go through, including selecting your favorite team. Once that’s done you can join a drop on new packs, putting you into a virtual queue—after which you can grab a pack. After you verify via SMS (again), you can choose to pay with an existing crypto wallet, a Flow wallet, your Dapper balance, or, handily, a credit card.


One of the leading NFT marketplaces on Ethereum, Rarible is a community-owned platform that showcases a wide range of digital art and collectibles. It currently has the fifth-highest all-time trading volume according to Dappradar, with $210 million having changed hands.

Similar to OpenSea, you can buy and sell all sorts of media. Sellers also have the option to create more than one NFT for a single image, selling it more than once.


Rarible’s user interface is simple enough for relative crypto novices to use; users who have dabbled in similar NFT marketplaces like OpenSea will easily feel right at home.

You can log in using a variety of different crypto wallets, including MetaMask, Coinbase Wallet, MyEtherWallet, or any mobile wallet using WalletConnect. Once signed in, you can use funds in your wallet to buy, or even top up your wallet with fiat currency via bank transfer or debit card.


SuperRare positions itself as a slightly higher-end alternative to Rarible; where Rarible’s interface bombards you with a dizzying array of flickering GIFs and live auctions, SuperRare has an altogether more pared-back, minimalist appearance.

It’s also more heavily curated, billing itself as a social platform that aims to encourage the creation and collection of crypto art. It works closely with artists, requiring work to be submitted and approved before it’s allowed to be listed; quality over quantity, in other words.


Signing up to SuperRare requires a supported wallet like MetaMask or Formatic. There’s an extra step that involves creating a username and password that’s linked to your wallet address, but it only takes a few seconds, so it won’t be long before you’re perusing the platform’s selection of exclusive NFTs.



KnownOrigin has a much smaller all-time trading volume—just $6.9 million—and, like SuperRare, aims to provide a more curated, gallery-like experience for the discerning NFT connoisseur. All of its artwork files are held on IPFS, which provides a measure of protection for the underlying assets. With a strong focus on digital art, this is a marketplace that shuns the crazier aspects of the NFT world, so you’ll find no wacky avatars or cute monsters here. 

At the risk of sounding like a broken record, KnownOrigin is simple to use. All you have to do is connect a wallet like MetaMask or Formatic, and you’ll be bidding on your own coveted NFT assets in no time.



Foundation currently has a total trading volume of just over $79 million, billing itself as a “creative playground” for artists. It’s played host to a number of notable sales, including the NFT of iconic Internet meme Nyan CatEdward Snowden’s first NFT and an audiovisual digital collectible created by producer Richard D. James, better known as Aphex Twin.

Once you’ve connected your MetaMask or other software wallet using WalletConnect, Foundation’s marketplace is simple to operate, letting you place bids on timed auctions just like you would with a regular auction site.


MakersPlace is another boutique NFT marketplace that prides itself on hosting numerous exclusive collections of digital fine art. Its total volume might be on the lower end ($23.5 million at the time of writing), but it features plenty of one-off creations that add to its exclusivity.

In February 2021, the site memorably went down when iconic crypto artist Beeple offered a collection of NFTs for $1 a pop. It’s also hosted a number of NFT drops by musicians, with the likes of T-PainShakira and Rage Against the Machine’s Tom Morello having signed up to the platform.

It’s easy enough to sign up at MakersPlace as a buyer, and can even use your Google or Facebook account logins to save time.


You’ll have to select five artists to follow as part of the registration process and can then purchase creations with either your MetaMask ETH balance, or (handily) your credit card. If you’re a creator then you’ll have to request an invitation to join the platform, filling out an online form for the curators’ approval.

10.Nifty Gateway

One of the first wave of big NFT marketplaces, Nifty Gateway has a powerful backer in the form of crypto exchange Gemini, which acquired the platform back in 2019. It proved to be a prescient move; amid the NFT boom, Nifty Gateway made headlines with one of the first multimillion-dollar NFT sales, brokering the sale of Beeple’s CROSSROAD for $6.6 million in February 2021. By May, the platform had hit $300 million in gross merchandise value.

The platform offers a heavily curated selection of NFT drops, on a tri-weekly schedule, playing host to artists including The WeekndGrimes and Eminem. It also has a marketplace where you can browse curated collections, verified artists and a broader selection of work from unverified artists.

Nifty Gateway

Getting started is a relatively streamlined process thanks to Nifty Gateway’s close integration with Gemini. First up, you’ll need to register for the site (and verify your identity using Stripe, if you’re planning to sell NFTs). You’ll need to load up your account with some funds, either by linking a credit card or by sending some ETH to a deposit address. Once that’s done, you’re then ready to buy NFTs from the marketplace.

You also have the option of linking your Gemini exchange account with your Nifty Gateway account, enabling you to use your Gemini exchange account balance for purchases and withdrawals (your Gemini account can be topped up using bank transfer, wire transfer, crypto deposits and trades).



BakerySwap is one of the smaller NFT marketplaces compared to the likes of OpenSea, but that’s not entirely surprising; where most NFT marketplaces are built on Ethereum, BakerySwap is one of the first to be launched on Binance Smart Chain (BSC). The NFT marketplace makes up one section of the platform, which also allows users to trade and swap liquidity assets directly with each other. 

The NFT marketplace is straightforward enough, with the usual MetaMask connection required. Note that because this platform is run on the Binance Smart Chain, NFT assets can only be purchased with BNB, as opposed to the more common ETH.

12.Binance NFT Marketplace

Binance NFT marketplace

Binance NFT marketplace is, unsurprisingly, an NFT platform provided courtesy of the world’s largest crypto exchange, Binance. The company aims to provide an NFT marketplace with exclusive offerings and partnerships, attracting the exchange’s formidable user base to its NFT platform.

If you’ve already got a Binance account then you’ll be pleased to hear it’ll automatically work with Binance NFT. Once you’re in, it’s as easy as bidding on any assets that catch your eye. You can use ETH, BNB, and BUSD, depending on what the creators have listed.


Solanart screenshot

The most recent NFT mini-boom has taken place on Solana, a rival blockchain to Ethereum. Collections such as Degenerate Ape AcademyAurory and SolPunks have seen trading volumes of hundreds of millions of dollars, trading hands on marketplaces such as Solanart.

Unlike OpenSea, Solanart is a curated set of NFT collections, so offers a relatively limited selection of NFTs for purchase.

To get started with buying Solana NFTs on Solanart, you’ll need to download a Solana wallet such as Phantom or Solflare, and load it up with Solana from your exchange of choice. Phantom offers a handy direct integration with crypto exchange FTX, which makes it a cinch to deposit funds from that exchange.

From there, it’s just a matter of clicking through to your chosen NFT, connecting your Solana wallet to the marketplace, and placing your bid.

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GTX 1660 Super – Mining Overview


Estimated reading time: 3 minutes

The GTX 1660 Super in my view is still a great card for beginners to mining and if you can get hold of it for the right price it’s a good starter if your new to mining. As this only requires once power cable into the GPU.

The card features 6 GB of GDDR6 memory, the Turing architecture, and memory speed at 14 Gbps. According to the manufacturer, the GTX 1660 Super outranks its younger brother in performance by 20%. As for the Nvidia GTX 1060 6 GB, there is a 75% advantage. Like other Nvidia graphics cards, the 1660 Super can mine ZCoin, Ethereum, Ravencoin, Beam, and other top cryptocurrencies.

Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Super Overclocking for Mining

To maximize hash rate you are probably going to need to configure additional settings. Choose an optimal GPU overclocking value to maximize hash rate and keep energy consumption at an acceptable level. Algorithms may require core overclocking, memory overclocking, or both.

The main overclocking principle is stable work and maximum hash rate at an acceptable energy consumption level. It’s important to remember that each GPU is unique.

If for one it is possible to overclock the core to 2000 MHz, for a similar one you may be able to overclock only to 1900 MHz. Make sure to adjust overclocking settings for each card individually. Find out more: GPU Overclocking on Different Algorithms.

Following that, as you can see its on par with the 1660ti for mining ethereum but looses out on some of the other algorythms. To get to this all I did was set to -1004 for the Hynix memory type.

Next, in this section we will go into some different overclocks:-

GTX 1660 Super Ethereum Mining Overclocks – 32 MH/s

  1. Power Limit – 60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS

    60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS

  2. Core Clock


  3. Memory Clock


  4. Fan Speed

    70% or more/less based on your temps.

Flux Mining Overclocks – 29 Sol/s

  • Core Voltage (VDD): NA
  • Power Limit (%): 65% or 85 (W)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 0
  • Memory Clock (MClock): -1004 
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.

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ZOTAC Gaming GeForce GTX 1660 Super 6GB GDDR6 192-bit Gaming Graphics Card

EVGA 06G-P4-1068-KR GeForce GTX 1660 Super Sc Ultra Gaming

MSI Gaming GeForce GTX 1660 Super 192-bit HDMI/DP 6GB GDRR6 HDCP Support DirectX 12 Dual Fan VR Ready OC Graphics Card

Other GPU Options

At this moment in time I would also recommend the 6600xt and 1660ti for beginners – purely based on ease of use and efficiency.

GPU Profitability

Check out the eth calculator for the latest payback prediction.


Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

Related Articles – check them out!

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Best Open Air Mining Rig Frames


Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

Check out the below mining frames, I have selected these for ease of assembly and airflow to the GPUs. Please let us know your thoughts on your favourite frame and leave a comment.

Our Top 3 Open Air Frames

AAAwave The Sluice V2 12GPU Open Frame Mining Rig Frame Chassis for Crypto Currency Ethereum Ravencoin Ergo Zcoin

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Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C

Mining Rig Frame, Up to 8GPU Mining Rig Case Steel Open Air Miner Mining Frame, Mining Accessories Tools for Crypto Coin Currency Bitcoin ETH ETC ZEC Mining

AAAwave The Sluice V2 12GPU Open Frame Mining Rig Frame Chassis for Crypto Currency Ethereum Ravencoin Ergo Zcoin

Best for GPU spacing and capacity of GPUs

  • Easy to install with strong structure. non-marring and non-slip rubber feet. support dual power supply.
  • The product is an empty shelf without fans, switches, lights, cpu, gpu, psu, motherboards, and cables.
  • High-quality metal, strong & durable, fully-protects your gpu and electronic device.
  • Good design – designed according to standard holes of atx motherboards, graphics cards, hard drives, and power supplies.
  • advantage – super cooling design for heat dissipation. enhances the cooling and extends the service life of graphics cards. online support 7 days/week. 1 year warranty and 30-day return guarantee.

Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C V3D Aluminum Stackable Mining Rig Open Air Frame Case for Ethereum (ETH,ETC) ZCash (ZEC) Monero (XMR)

Best for Durability and stacking – very solid

  • Cool | stackable | reliable | quiet |simplistic and compact design with powerful visual impact. high quality aluminum alloy material. strong, durable and available. fully protecting your gpu and electronic device.
  • The installation process have been extremely simplified by using only a few of screws.the location of the installation of the graphics card can be adjusted, which is guaranteed to be compatible with any kind of graphics card.
  • Note: if you have any pre-sales and after-sales questions, please contact us by email, we will reply to you within 24 hours.
  • High-quality and solid aluminum alloy painted elegantly with glossy black. more detailed-oriented logo design brings a new veddha branding.precisely laser cutted material with excellent thermal conductivity, greatly enhancing the overall heat dissipation performance.
  • Simplistic and compact design. 10 minutes installation. risers permanently mounted on the rig, which gives more stable connection between risers and graphics cards. professional design for miner, accelerating the air convection, enhancing the cooling and extending the service life of graphics cards.

How to Build a Mining Rig – Step by Step Guide


Mining is one of the ways through which you can get yourself some of the valuable cryptocurrencies out there, with the right equipment. I will updating this step by step iteratively – please leave your comments and thoughts.

Let’s look at a step by step guide on how you can build a mining rig to help you start mining coins.

What is a mining rig?

Mining rigs are simply powerful computer systems set up to carry out mining of a cryptocurrency.

A rig could be a specialized and dedicated system that is used for mining or otherwise be meant for other operations like gaming and be utilized for mining when needed.

How does a mining rig work?

A mining rig works by using the mining software on a miner to hook the mining hardware to a given mining pool.

The mining rig points the rig’s hash rate at the pool before participating in the process of securing and completing transactions on the network.

You get rewarded when your rig helps the pool add a block to the blockchain.

What are the different types of mining rigs?

1 CPU mining

This is the process of mining crypto using a CPU processor to perform the computational algorithms to solve blocks. However, it is no longer widely used.

What are the pros and cons of CPU mining?


  • The CPU mining rig is inexpensive since it can be done with an ordinary PC.
  • You can mine other newer altcoins with CPU easily.


  • It is the slowest form of mining; almost obsolete.
  • Low hash rate.
  • It’s not profitable because it’s slow.

2 GPU mining

GPU mining rig involves the use of graphics card to complete the mining process in a network. 

What are the pros and cons of GPU mining?


  • Higher hashing power compared to CPU.
  • Useful in mining a wide variety of cryptocurrencies that have different hashing algorithms.
  • Profitable when done properly.


  • Quite expensive.

What to consider when building a mining rig?

Consider the following when building your own mining rig.

1 Hash rate

Hash rate refers to the total number of calculations that the mining hardware can handle every second when the mining process is on.

We measure hash rates in terms of their megahashes (MH/s), gigahashes (GH/s), and terahashes (TH/s) per second.

In mining, the higher your hash rate, the more it is likely that you may end up successful in getting a transaction secured and verified.

This means a higher chance of getting an ROI.

2 Energy consumption

Cryptocurrency mining consumes huge amounts of power and therefore, the cost of electricity is always higher. Beware of how much that given to set up will consume vs. the expected ROI.

To be on the safe side, look at the hardware’s power consumption in watts before making a purchase.

To find out your hardware’s energy consumption, take the hash rate figure and divide it by the wattage of that hardware.

3 Hardware prices

It is good to consider the prices of the hardware equipment you are going to use.

The cost to put up the rig should be proportional to the expected profits. Check the market for cost-effective tools that give you performance and yet are not too expensive.

You can use Amazon or BestBuy as a reference.

4 Maintenance

Maintenance is a key component if you want to get the best out of your DIY assembled mining rig.

As you set up the rig, consider the maintenance costs, the frequency of doing so and how that can be effectively done to ensure you have an output equivalent to the costs.

Things like the cooling system need frequent checks, so consider getting one that won’t bog you down with constant failure.

How to build a mining rig?

How to build a mining rig may appear a daunting task at first but once you get everything you need, you will find it much easier than you initially thought.

And therefore, the very first thing is to assemble everything you will need so as to save yourself the hassle of running up and down trying to locate this or that.

Photo courtesy of CryptosRUs

It is also important to be accessible to:

  • Reliable electricity supply.
  • Ethernet (wireless can do, but Ethernet is the best).

Here is what you need to start with:


A motherboard is simply that big flat component of your computer that everything else plugs into. Whatever device you choose must be compatible with the MOBO.

The motherboard will determine the kind of CPU to use, the number of GPUs you can add, and memory limit.

To check if the CPU and your MOBO are compatible, use the Part Picker tool for PCs. A good MOBO for mining rigs should have the capacity for at least 6 GPUs.


Another very significant factor to consider is where you want to put up your rig. This is important because we want to have our rig in a well-ventilated place that would aid in cooling the rig. It is important to keep your GPU rigs in a cool area because they tend to overheat.

The GPU should have an optimal temperature to operate in.

Cooler rigs will have a better output which is our aim. So you should use AC, air duct boosters or oscillating fans to keep the room cool.

Graphics card

You will, of course, need a graphics card (or many of them) which is the main component that will be solving difficult mining problems. This is key to the profitability of your IG so please do your own research. The choice and variety here are massive but I will link in some products below to help you get started.

Power supply

How much power do I need for my rig? That solely depends on the hardware used.

Since your graphics card will draw the most power, please refer to its manual to see the max power consumption. If you have more cards in the rig the desired power could be calculated as follows:

Thus 1500-1600W power supply would give you plenty of room for your rig without risking any overload.

Remember the 80% rule – you don’t want to use more than 80% of the PSUs capacity in most cases.

Are you ready to mine? Let’s build our mining rig.

1 Setting up your rig frame

Get something that can hold your rig’s hardware together. If you are building a smaller rig, an old computer case will do.

However, you can also opt for commonly used items in the home like milk crates, wire racks or wooden frames.

Alternatively, you can go for one that is ready-made; though you’d need to be sure it will fit the rig you intend to build.

2 Set up your motherboard

Place the motherboard on a flat non-static surface and carefully insert the CPU component into the socket.

Use thermal paste to have your custom cooler attached to the CPU. Learn how to correctly apply thermal paste to CPU or GPU if you’ve never done it before.

Make sure not to tamper with the CPU fan. Connect this CPU fan to a 3-4 jack and then to the RAM.

Place the motherboard onto the rig frame and secure it into place using screws. Be attentive not to have the motherboard touching any metallic surface (metal surfaces are conductive).

Connect your SSD to the motherboard and secure it into place too.

3 Install the PSU

Connect the motherboard to the power supply unit using the 24-pin connector near the CPU. Use the 8-pin connector to connect the CPU to the PSU.

Then connect the SATA to the SSD. At this point, ensure the SSD has a power supply connection and that it has a SATA properly connected to the motherboard.

You should zip-tie any extra cables that may get in your way. It is sometimes challenging to have the wires in place neatly, so be patient and use zip ties to hold the wires in position.

With the PSU in place, install the Molex and the 6 pin or if otherwise, the 6 +2 cables into the power supply unit.

The next thing is to power the GPU risers. This is done from the VGA cables for the GPU. You may also wish to check out server power supplies.

4 Adding GPU risers

Secure your GPU to the rig frame, after you are done with the risers, connect all your PCIe cables to the GPUs.

For instance, I am imagining you have chosen to go with 5 cards. In this case, attach one card to the motherboard and the other 4 to the Risers.

5 Booting up

First, you must have an OS system of your choice on a USB drive.

When booting up for the first time, have your computer monitor connected to the motherboard. The connection should be either to the motherboard’s Graphics output or essentially to GPU.

Next, plug the PSU into the wall socket before you connect the Ethernet cable. You should then boot up the computer and go to BIOS. Getting into BIOS is usually automatic, but if it doesn’t seem to be getting you there, press the DEL button whiles the PC boots.

Go to Settings -> Power management and set your rig to automatically reboot in case of power outage.

Next, check the PCIE subsystem and set it to either gen 1 or gen 2. If the default is set to auto, that’s fine. Proceed to shut down your PC.

6 Reboot the system using the USB stick you installed

First, load the OS and go to windows. Once on windows, proceed to the website of the motherboard you used.

Use a second computer to download all the relevant drivers that are available.

Install the drivers and run windows update to have the computer system up to date.

7 Optimize windows – Not required with HiveOS

Disable superfetch. With the SSD in place, the will be the set up: Run -> Services -> superfetch (disable).

You should then disable all updates and make sure you cancel any scheduled tasks.

Download the latest version of video card drivers and then do an installation.

Once done with the installation, reboot your computer.

On booting up, go to Device Manager to check and verify that the system has detected all the GPUs.

8 GPU BIOS set up

Before you proceed, it is also prudent to make a backup of all the files. For the RX series, I recommend you go for Polaris Bios Editor.

Next, we want to set up our GPU by doing a BIOS flash. To do this, flash the BIOS of each and every GPU with AtiFlash.

Once the process is done, reboot your computer.

9 Download Mining Software – Not Required with HiveOS

On reboot, check once more if the system still detects all the cards.

Most profitable and easy to use mining software  – please check out HiveOS I moved to this instead of windows and never looked back. They have a great community and lots of support.

Referral Link – https://hiveos.farm?ref=340660

The next thing is to choose a pool and set up your pool’s credentials.

Choosing a pool is essential if you are to realize a good ROI because if you choose to solo mine, the returns will be too little and far apart. These links will give you some valuable information to start and Ethermine is a good pool.

Check out – Poolwatch.IO

Selection of software and Ethermine Pool

You should now go ahead and set up the .BAT file to automatically start the mining software of your choice on system startup.

Go to Windows -> Start -> Programs -> Startup and have a .BAT file shortcut created. The file should either come with the mining software or you have to create it manually.

10 Download and install overclocking software – Not Required with HiveOS

Download the MSI AfterburnerSAPPHIRE TriXX or any other overclocking application.

Use that to make adjustments to the GPUs core, voltage and memory. Aim at having low voltage use but high memory clocks for crypto like ETH.

It is possible to lower the core clock when using one of the RX cards.

When mining other cryptocurrencies, it is advisable to set the rig at low voltage use but high core clocks.

For optimum output, tweak around with the settings until you get what’s best for you.

The value of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum has added to the attraction people have for them.

Mining is one of the most profitable ways of getting the coins. But it needs dedication and readiness to invest. As such, you need to do is have a good rig to help you get started.

Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

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Best Mining Rig Parts and Reviews


Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

Firstly, in order to build a mining rig there are a number of things to think about and parts to purchase. I have split some of these out below from my latest builds. A lot of these can be swapped out for an alternative option.

We make our recommendation focusing on efficiency and ease of use, ideal for beginners but do your own research as always.

I would recommend checking out nerdgearz.com for GPUs, Parallel Mining for server power supplies and accessories and mineshop.eu if you are in Europe.

Enter our discount code at nergearz.com TechSocialNetwork for a 2% discount.

AMD / Nvidia HiveOS Mining Rig Build – 215 MH/s with awesome RGB!

First things first, you can check out the full post here – check out the post. Here is the parts list. This build has room for expansion beyond 6 gpu’s easily.


This site contains affiliate links to products. We may receive a commission for purchases made through these links. 

Mining Rig Part

Quick Review

Integrated graphic's and does the job for mining on an AM4 Motherboard.

Reliable and cheap to run HiveOS. Easily replaceable.

Has all the mining features required, 4g decoding etc. Also has some cool RGB at a reasonable price.

This rig has more power capacity to get to 80% of load. Having one of these allows me to add extra gpu's.

Good price, please pick up an extra pack of fans. I forgot and had to get another pack.

Parallel Mining supply some great bundles on server power supplies. You get the cables you need and can adapt your order as required. You will need a Pico switch as well to power the motherboard and cpu.

Great RGB with a controller at a reasonable price. The airflow is also reasonable

Updating my rigs to these ones going fowards, 8 capacitors and I have some white builds coming.

RTX 3070 / 2060 SUPER Mining Rig Build – Hash to burn

Check out the post.

Mining Rig Part

Quick Review

Amazon Link

CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 5600X 6-core, 12-Thread Unlocked Desktop Processor with Wraith Stealth Cooler

CPU was taken out of a gaming build I did, not bad on Raptoreum. 

Boot Drive: ADATA Ultimate Series: SU630 240GB Internal SATA Solid State Drive

These have been reliable for me and a reasonable price. You could also check out the Kingston SSD.

Motherboard: MSI MPG X570 GAMING PRO CARBON WIFI Motherboard

Quite expensive but came out of a gaming system, the quality is good and no reliability issues.

RAM: Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3200MHz C16 Desktop Memory Kit

Good quality ram, at a decent price. I find corsair to be a very reliable brand.

Splitter Card: PCIe 1 to 4 Riser Card, Pcie Splitter 1 to 4 PCI Riser Card

This rig has more power capacity to get to 80% of load. Having one of these allows me to add extra gpu's.

Mining Frame: Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C V3D Aluminum Stackable Mining Rig Open Air Frame Case

I bought this, its a great frame but only if you can get it an affordable price. After moving my rigs several times I kow realize why this has such a durable design compared to cheaper frames.

PSU: Corsair CP-9020139-UK HX1000 1000 W 80+ Platinum Fully Modular Power Supply Unit - Black

Never cheap out on an ATX PSU. You could also consider a server psu.

Fans: upHere RGB Series Case Fan,120mm Fan,Quiet Edition High Airflow Adjustable Color LED Case Fan for PC Cases-5 Pack

Great RGB with a controller at a reasonable price. The airflow is also reasonable.

Risers: Ubit 6-PCS PCI-E Riser 

Updating my rigs to these ones going fowards, 8 capacitors and I have some white builds coming.

Home » News

AMD Radeon RX 6800 and RX 6800XT Mining Overview and Settings – 63 MH/s!


Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

The 6800xt is a great card for mining – check out our review and let us know your thoughts. Does it surpass the 5700xt. On stock settings, both cards showed the same hash result. Which is not surprising, but different power consumption levels.

Mining Overclocks

Next lets talk about overclocks, the 6800 xt is solid on most coins.

Flux Mining Overclocks – 55 Sol/s at 200 Watts

RX 6800 XT ZelHash (FLUX) Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 700
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 2225 (Locked)
  • Memory Clock (MClock): NA
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum Mining Overclocks

RX 6800 XT Ethash Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): N/A
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

RX 6800 Octopus Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

RX 6800 KawPow Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

It is worth noting that the latest AMD drivers for video cards have a new function Memory Timings  – FAST TIMINGS, which is obviously designed to increase the performance of video cards in mining cryptocurrencies and Ethereum in particular.

Enabling this option shifts the hashrate range by 2-3Mh/s upwards (59-63Mh/s)

Opportunities for overclocking video memory in the current beta drivers are very limited. It is not possible to raise the memory frequency by more than 150MHz.

rx6800XT hashrate ethereum fast timings

Memory +150Mhz, Fast Timings -ON

Radeon RX 6800XT – 63-66Mh/s 250W

The next step is to reduce GPU power consumption

Memory +150MHZ, GPU – 550MHz (1450Mhz), Fast Timings -ON

Radeon RX 6800XT – 63-66Mh/s 170W

rx6800XT hashrate ethereum overclock

Conclusion: In the current realities, the AMD Radeon RX 6800 and RX 6800XT video cards turned out, as expected, 15% better than the previous generation in Ethereum mining. But this is on stock settings.

If we take into account the rich experience of miners in fine tuning the RX 5700 (60MH/s 150W), then the advantage of the RX 6800 becomes even less obvious. Especially if we take into account the difference in the price of video cards of different generations. In the near future, we may also see better mining settings for the RX 6800.

First of all, this is the ability to increase the video memory frequency by more than 150MHZ and a more aggressive downvolt. Do not forget about Infinity Cash. Which has not yet been discounted, because mining is not limited to just one Dagger Hashimoto algorithm.

MSI Gaming Radeon RX 6800 XT 16GB GDRR6 256-Bit HDMI/DP 2285 MHz

This site contains affiliate links to products. We may receive a commission for purchases made through these links. 

About this item

  • Chipset: Radeon RX 6800 XT
  • Video Memory: 16GB GDDR6
  • Memory Interface: 256-bit
  • Output: DisplayPort x 3 (v1.4) / HDMI 2.1 x 1
  • Digital maximum resolution – 7680 x 4320

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6600XT Mining Overview and Overclock Settings – 55 watts!


The AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT is an Ethereum miner’s dream producing 32 MH/s using only 55 watts. I have recently bought 3 of these and look to invest in more due to the efficiency of the cards and they keep temperature really well.

Personally, I love these cards as there is no need to BIOS update like other AMD cards and the thermals in my small GPU farm are fine – 23 cards and growing.

These cards are all close in terms of performance, so at this point I think it all depends on price and avoiding scalpers.

Ethereum miners have been drawn to NVIDIA’s GeForce RTX 30 series cards, but AMD now has a compelling option in the shape of the Radeon RX 6600 XT. The Navi 23 card is twice as efficient as a GeForce RTX 3060, thanks to a 32 MH/s hash rate.

If you need some overclocks – here are mine on HiveOS but you should be able to get these even better by editing the VDD, please only do so in small increments at your own risk.

Mining Overclocks

Well know that the merge is coming closer and closer, I am going to start updating overclocks to include more coins. My favourite is flux because of the possibilities with Web 3. Loads more to come on this so check out some of my other posts.


Next in this section is overclocks, Flux gets 22.6 Sol/s at 50 watts in HiveOS.

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 740
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1800
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 1134
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.


RX 6600 XT Ethereum Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 640
  • Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 965
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2270 or 1135
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Kawpow – Ravencoin

RX 6600 XT KawPow Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 640
  • Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1425
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2270 or 1135
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

This site contains affiliate links to products. We may receive a commission for purchases made through these links. 

My Choice

Sapphire Technology Pulse AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

PowerColor Fighter AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

ASUS Dual AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT OC Edition 8GB GDDR6 Gaming Graphics Card 

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

According to initial mining tests, the Radeon RX 6600 XT manages 32 MH/s at 55 W when mining Ethereum, which still remains popular among crypto miners. To put those figures in perspective, the Radeon RX 6600 XT is about twice as efficient as the NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060. In our opinion, the Radeon RX 6600 XT could become the most efficient crypto mining card of the RDNA 2 generation. The same should be the case for Ampere cards, too.

While we do not have any Radeon RX 6600 XT cards to hand, a video by Dizzy Mining has demonstrated that these values are achievable. By default, the RX 6600 XT will reach 28 MH/s while consuming 93 W. Dropping the GPU clock speed to 1.2 GHz and increasing the memory clock to 2.2 GHz improves the hash rate to 32 MH/s at 55 W, though.

Hence, the card could end up being a popular option for mining farms, which may push up prices. The Radeon RX 6600 XT is a good choice for 1080p gaming, too, with its Navi 23 GPU, 32 MB of Infinity Cache and 8 GB of GDDR6 VRAM running on a 128-bit interface.

Please also check out our 6600 XT Rig Build with a full breakdown of building a rig with 4 of these cards, ideal for beginners but do your own research as always. Check out some of our rig builds, including parts, build instructions and overclocks:-

Our Mining Rig Builds

GPU Reviews

Finally, please check out some more of our graphics card reviews.

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Bitcoin mining difficulty declines by 16%


Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

Bitcoin’s mining difficulty saw a notable decrease around Sunday midnight UTC time as the network’s hash rate has dropped significantly even before China’s bitcoin mining crackdown comment.

On-chain data shows the network’s mining difficulty adjusted to 21.05 Trillion at block height 685,440, which is a 16% drop compared to its recent all-time-high recorded on May 13.

In fact, Bitcoin’s average block production interval already increased to 11.8 minutes between May 13, the last mining difficulty adjustment date, and May 21, when China’s State Council iterated in a recent meeting that there needs to be a crackdown on bitcoin mining and trading activities in China.

That interval was 18% faster than the Bitcoin network’s intended 10-minute-per-block production time, which also means the average hash rate between May 13 and 21 already dropped to around 147 exhashes per second (EH/s).

Following the China State Council’s comment Friday last week, the seven-day moving average hash rate has remained relatively steady around the 150 EH/s level.  

As reported previously, the computing power connected to Bitcoin has declined since May 13 due to a few factors.

While some miners had started the migration process from Northern Chinese provinces to the hydro-electricity hub in Sichuan, the power plants in Sichuan have been limiting the supply to energy-intense industries including mining farms due to the delay of the rain this year. As a result, there has been a surging electricity demand from the general public, which had to be prioritized. 

It remains to be seen whether and how the Sichuan government will react to the State Council’s high-level policy signal in terms of cracking down on bitcoin mining activities. 

Read More

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Different from its counterparts in Inner Mongolia, where the energy is mostly based on fossil fuel, the Sichuan government is hosting a seminar next week to understand what the impact of a simple ban would have on the local hydropower economy. 

Meanwhile, some Chinese bitcoin miners are looking for energy capacities overseas to migrate their equipment out of China to hedge against regulatory uncertainties ahead.

Instagram is hosting a professional development panel for NFT artists


Estimated reading time: 1 minute

Instagram is hosting an event for non-fungible token (NFT) creators as part of its inaugural “Creator Week.”

The virtual program features a series of invitation-only events to solicit feedback from creators on how the Instagram and Facebook platforms can better support their content. It’s slated to run three days, from June 8-10. 

Variety first reported the event, calling it a “professional development” series for 5,000 Instagram creators.

NFT artist Sean Williams tweeted an invitation from the series for a panel entitled “A virtual creator event for visual artists and a special discussion on crypto art.” An Instagram spokesperson confirmed that the series would contain an NFT-focused event. 

In his thread, Williams said the invitation amounted to an ask for “high level business consulting” in panel form, and indicated that Instagram is looking to build out an NFT platform.

Instagram said it had “no updates to share” on whether it’s looking into building out an NFT platform. 

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Image Credit: ALEX_UGALEK / Shutterstock.com

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The liquid hard drive that could store a terabyte of data in a tablespoon of fluid


A liquid hard drive containing a suspension of nanoparticles could be used to store impressive amounts of data: 1 terabyte per tablespoon.

This article is from back in 2014 but though I would bring it back to life – could this be a future alternative for storage and crypto currencies – hopefully a shelf life is not built into it like an SSD.

Researchers from the University of Michigan and New York University have been simulating wet information storage techniques which uses clusters of nanoparticles suspended in liquid. These clusters of particles can store more data than conventional computer bits which have just two storage states: 0 and 1. The clusters of particles work a bit like Rubik’s Cubes to reconfigure in different ways to represent different storage states. A 12-particle memory cluster connected to a central sphere can have almost eight million unique states, which is equivalent to 2.86 bytes of data.ADVERTISING

The system works by having nanoparticles attached to a central sphere. When the sphere is small, the outer particles trap each other into place, storing data. If the sphere is a bit larger, the particles can be reconfigured to store different information. The team created a cluster involving four particles on a central sphere — all made of polymers. By heating the liquid up, the spheres expand and the particles can rearrange themselves in predictable ways. Although the four-particle clusters have only two distinguishable configurations (i.e. like a regular bit), the plan is create clusters with many more particles.

The simulations showed that a tablespoon of a solution containing a three percent concentration of 12-nanoparticle clusters could store a terabyte of data. This compares with the smartphone-sized device required to store this amount of data as an external hard drive.

Post-doctoral researcher Carolyn Phillips described the clusters as like Rubik’s Cubes. “You can use the same mathematics that describes a Rubik’s Cube to show that every rearrangement of the cluster’s spheres is possible and reachable.”

For liquid hard drives to become a practical reality, the team needs to work out a way to lock the clusters into the right shapes across a large volume of liquid and then read the data back with ease — currently the team is counting bits with a scanning tunnelling microscope.

These sorts of clusters could be used to detect pollutants in water or allow medical information processing to take place inside the body. Memory clusters could also allow for sensing and control in soft robots.

Before then, it’s more likely that the clusters could be used as unique identifiers for liquid materials, allowing for the tracking of controlled substances such as fuel, explosives and chemicals used to make illegal drugs.

You can read the full paper for free here, but you may have to register to view it.

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Cosmos Now Lets Blockchains Talk to Each Other With IBC Protocol


Cosmos has launched its Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol, allowing interoperability between different blockchains.

In brief

  • The Cosmos Inter-Blockchain Communication standard has been launched on Cosmos Hub.
  • The team is building a decentralized exchange for trading tokens issued on IBC-enabled blockchains.

After five years of research and development, the long-awaited Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol has been rolled out onto the Cosmos Hub. The protocol allows sovereign chains to connect and communicate with each other, enabling the transfer of tokens between Cosmos and other IBC-compatible blockchains.

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The launch on March 29 follows a successful community governance vote in support of the feature, with almost 112 million votes cast in favor of the proposal.

During the launch event, which was broadcast live, the developers also performed a live demo of IBC-powered token transfers between different Cosmos blockchains.

With the introduction of IBC on Cosmos Hub, the developers expect that the scope of possibilities for blockchain applications will be greatly expanded, since the protocol supports the transfer of both fungible and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) between chains. This opens up a slate of new possibilities, such as the creation of interchain token exchanges and NFT marketplaces.

According to Cosmos, “Permissionless transfer of tokens across chains is a historic moment on the timeline to a valuable internet of blockchains. Cosmos Hub–the heart of the interchain–will enable trade and connect sovereign chains to create a new paradigm for economic exchange.”

The team said it is already working on a decentralized exchange (DEX) that will support cross-chain functionality for IBC-compatible blockchains. Dubbed Gravity, it will act as a marketplace for trading tokens issued on IBC-enabled blockchains, such as the project’s own ATOM token, with additional support for Ethereum-based assets, wrapped BTC tokens, as well as for “any future networks that implement

A Road Five Years Long

The IBC protocol, which was added to the Cosmos Hub in February 2021 as part of the Stargate upgrade, is one of the key elements of the Cosmos platform. Others include the Cosmos SDK, which allows developers to build applications, and Tendermint–an open-source consensus protocol for creating fast and secure proof of stake blockchains.

The initial Cosmos whitepaper was published back in 2016 and envisioned an “Internet of blockchains”–a system that would allow multiple parallel blockchains to interoperate while retaining their security properties. It took the team three years to bring the project to mainnet—but it’s only now that the map of the Cosmos is starting to come together.

Top 3 SSDs For Chia Plotting


Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

With the new cryptocurrency, Chia, raising eyebrows, more and more people are trying to get in on the action. However, people are already coming up with ways to plot for Chia and are running into issues with their SSDs. Today we are going to look at cheaper SSDs for Chia plotting.

Chia plotting relies on fast storage, making SSDs the obvious choice. Flash pricing has come down making SSDs obtainable for most. For plotting though, you can’t just use any old cheap SSD. In fact, most consumer SSDs will get destroyed in the process of plotting as each plot has about a 1.4TB write hit to generate the ~110GB final file.

For perspective, many low-end consumer SSDs would only make a few hundred plots before their endurance is wiped out and the drive is trashed. That’s forgetting that most SSDs in that class would also post terrible write performance as they often leave out DRAM to save on drive cost. StorageReview has been reviewing client drives since the inception of flash and we’ll present some of the best here for your Chia plotting.

Below we listed out a chart of consumer drives (all 2TB), their endurance, their cost as of this writing, and their write performance to get an overall idea of how they will perform plotting Chia. Now, keep in mind that higher performance is not always the best. Some of the lower-end in endurance has some of the highest performance but would burn up trying to plot Chia.

Cheap SSDs For Chia Plotting

DriveTBWSustained Write Performance
Sabrent Rocket Gen 43,600 TB855 Mbs
Samsung 970 Pro Gen 41,200 TB1.78 Gbs
WD Black SN 7501,200 TB1.52 Gbs
These products are affiliated amazon links and we gain a small amount of commission.

Top 3 Cheap SSDs For Chia Plotting

There are two ways to look at this data. You either want to maximize your plots per drive, or you want to maximize your speed to plot, with a drive that has moderate endurance. In the speed kills category, the Samsung 980 Pro is the clear winner, with the WD Back SN850 pretty close behind though carries a higher price tag at the moment.  The trade-off with these two drives is that you will burn them out much faster than the highest-rated endurance drives.

On the other hand, the Sabrent Rocket offers the best endurance and good performance for its price. The next strongest endurance to performance to price is the Silicon Power US70 with just a hair slower performance. Either of these drives will produce roughly 3X more plot over their lifetime, they’ll just be half as fast to get there.

SATA only? Try a light enterprise drive like the Intel S4510. They’re widely available and not terribly expensive. For those that can support a U.2 SSD through native connectors, edge card adapter, or other means, the NVMe Intel P4510 also can be found at great pricing used.

None of these drives guarantees any better luck when farming Chia, but they probably have the best chance to help if you can’t spring for enterprise SSDs.

Chia – SSDs

With the madmax plotter now available – I don’t think its super important to get an expensive SSD – also the write speeds drop off quickly as the seem to boost the initial load and taper off after a while. Check out the madmax article below for how to set it up.

I have been successful plotting the below with all 3 SSDs with my Intel Nuc i7.

WD_Black SN750 1TB NVMe Internal Gaming SSD – Gen3


Sabrent Rocket Q 1TB NVMe PCIe M.2 2280 Internal SSD


Samsung 970 EVO Plus 500GB NVMe M.2


Madmax Article

Mastercard Survey: Two-Thirds of Millennials Increasingly Open to Using Crypto


A Mastercard survey has shown that most millennials are eager to use and learn about cryptocurrencies.

In brief

  • A Mastercard survey has found that a majority of millennials are increasingly open to using cryptocurrencies.
  • Three-quarters of millennials are interested in learning more about cryptocurrency, according to the survey.

Mastercard’s New Payments Index survey has found that cryptocurrencies have gained ground, while millennials are “primed” to jump into the industry, with two-thirds (67%) more open to using crypto than they were a year ago.

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“As global interest in cryptocurrencies as a payment method continues to accelerate, four in 10 people across North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific say they plan to use cryptocurrency in the next year,” the survey, which was conducted across 18 markets around the world, found. 

There’s still some way to go in educating millennials about crypto, though. Per the survey, 77% of millennials are interested in learning more about crypto, while 75% of millennials agreed that they would use cryptocurrencies if they understood them better.

But cryptocurrencies are not the only digital innovation catching the eyes of consumers. Mastercard’s survey found that other technologies, like biometrics and QR codes, are taking hold too. 

Broader findings

Over 90% of Mastercard customers are considering using a form of emerging payments technology. 

According to Mastercard, the increased interest in these technologies has been fuelled by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. 

“As the world went into pandemic lockdown in 2020, consumers shifted their spending habits to embrace contactless tap-and-go payments and online shopping,” the statement said, adding that, “adoption of new payment technologies is rising, and consumer appetite for new, fast and flexible digital experiences continues to grow.”Survey: 9% Of US Teens Have Traded In CryptoAccording to a new survey by investment bank Piper Sandler, 9% of U.S. teenagers say they have traded in cryptocurrencies. The 41st iteration of Piper Sandler’s semi-annual “Taking Stock With …NewsBusinessScott Chipolina4 min read 

Mastercard’s survey also found that over 90% of consumers will consider using “at least one” emerging payment method. 

What’s more, almost two-thirds of consumers—63% to be exact—have already tried a new payment method. These consumers said they would not have made this step under “normal circumstances,” but the COVID-19 pandemic has “galvanized people to try flexible new payment options to get what they want, when they want it.” 

The Mastercard survey also found that over half of consumers would avoid businesses that did not support any kind of electronic payment system. “The pandemic made us think differently, partly out of necessity,” added Craig Vosburg, chief product officer at Mastercard.

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Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen’s Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages


On May 3, tokens stemming from the Chia network, a smart transaction blockchain created by the Bittorrent creator Bram Cohen, will start trading and transactions will be fully enabled. Rather than leveraging the proof-of-work consensus algorithm, Chia will utilize a model called proof-of-space which relies on storage. With Chia’s transactional launch pending, the project has sparked shortages over the demand for hard drives and solid-state drives (SSDs).

Chia Network Fuels High-End Hard Drive and SSD Shortages

Bram Cohen, the inventor of the popular torrenting application Bittorent has created a cryptocurrency that’s set to launch next month. Because Cohen is behind the Chia project, the pre-stages of the digital currency network have seen significant exposure since Chia was announced. Chia’s team believes that the project can allow anyone the ability to verify transactions without being dependent on “single-use hardware or a big electricity bill.”

Chia released the project’s Business White paper in February 2021 and the mainnet launched on March 19. This allowed participants to begin accessing farming rewards, but it also spurred the start of demand for hard drives and SSDs. Transactions will be enabled on May 3 and at that point in time, exchanges and brokerage services can allow people to trade chia tokens. The closer the Chia network’s transactional launch gets, the more demand grows for storage components.

The South China Morning Post (SCMP) explains that there’s been a major shortage in China when it comes to SSDs and hard drives. Chinese hard drive and SSD manufacturers are selling out quickly and product prices have skyrocketed on secondary markets.

Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen's Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages
Chia documentation says “a Proof-of-Space protocol is one in which: a Verifier can send a challenge to a Prover, and the Prover can demonstrate to the verifier that the Prover is reserving a specific amount of storage space at that precise time. The proof of space protocol has three components: plotting, proving/farming, and verifying.”

Chinese e-commerce markets like JD.com and Taobao have seen high-grade hard drive models sell out fast since the Chia mainnet launch. A customer service agent for Taobao has seen the demand spike and underscored that the customers are chia miners.

“Many people have inquired about large hard drives for chia mining in the past few days,” the Taobao agent noted. The agent also explained that brand-name equipment from Western Digital and Seagate has been experiencing shortages.

Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen's Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages
A visual explanation of the Chia network’s Proof-of-Space protocol.

On Chinese e-commerce platforms Taobao and JD.com, multiple models of enterprise-grade hard drives with large capacity have sold out. A hard drive and SSD seller in Shenzhen called Qin explained that on secondary markets, prices on this equipment can be up to 50% to 60% higher than retail. “You can mine chia with 4TB hard drives as well because we don’t have any hard drives over 4TB in stock,” Qin stressed.

“At peak times, prices have been at least 60 percent higher than usual. Prices dropped a bit recently but they are still about 50 percent (higher than normal) now,” another vendor named Chen detailed. The Chia network’s storage incentives have increased storage product requests considerably and hard drives between 4TB and 18TB are seeing the highest demand.about:blank

Cohen’s Success With Bittorrent Has Fueled Chia Hype

Besides the hype stemming from the creator Bram Cohen and the speculation forming within the crypto community, venture capital seems interested in Cohen’s crypto as well. In 2018, Chia raised $3.4 million from Greylock, Andreessen Horowitz, and Angellist’s Naval Ravikant.

Chia could also be an Ethereum competitor as it has its own onchain programming language called Chialisp. Cohen has explained that the smart transactions Chialisp will allow range from colored coin tech, atomic swaps, multi-sig wallets, recoverable wallets, authorized payees, and more.

Cohen’s previous project which cemented his fame, Bittorrent, was sold to Justin Sun and is now owned and operated by the blockchain firm Tron. The file-sharing operation Bittorrent was reportedly sold to Tron for $126 million in 2018.

What do you think about the demand for hard drives and SSDs skyrocketing over the upcoming Chia network’s transaction launch? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.Anonymous Dogecoin Holder Donates Profits to a Dog Shelter in FloridaALTCOINS | Apr 22, 2021PINT to Tokenize Exposure to the Top Polkadot InitiativesALTCOINS | Apr 19, 2021


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2018Andreessen HorowitzBitcoinBitTorrentBram CohenChiaChia NetworkGreylockHard Drivehard drivesjustin sunNaval RavikantPoWProof of Workproof-of-space-timeProof-of-StorageSSDSSDsStoragetron

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, Chia documentation, Seagate,

Flux Nodes – Time to Diversify


Well you may not know but this started as a mining blog. But with the increasing costs of electricity in Europe and the downturn of the crypto markets. Maybe its time to Diversify?

Having an extra source of income and supporting Crypto and Web 3 have been my passion for the last couple of years. Building up a GPU mining farm to over 1 GH, maintaining it and learning lots in the process. It helped to spike my interest in Networking as well which I will touch on in the future.

What do I mean?

There are other ways to gain an income from crypto, a lot of the kit and infrastructure you have invested in can be reused. CPU’s that meet the spec, hard drives in the future you may all be able to use. As well as proof of useful work which will launch on flux.

Flux Decentralized Node
Flux Decentralized Node

You can set up flux nodes, as linked you can see that I have used a CPU rig and converted it into a Hypervisor. Its not as complicated as you think and in the coming weeks I will try to guide you through various options.

There are also other ways to earn income, you can set up a presearch node on flux as well. This is cheaper than using a VPS at the moment.

What else is in the works?

We will be looking into the network requirements and other options for flux. Also hardware my cpu rig is quite big. I have an Intel Nuc to reuse from chia plotting which could support 2-3 nodes. This should be easy to just place next to your router at home.

I am also looking in Web 3 and implications and possibilities for the technology. So please keep in touch and follow us on twitter for more.

Thanks for reading and if you would like to collaborate or feature anything with us please get in touch.

Please check out some of our other posts!

What is Web3? Blockchain and more.

applications blog blogging blur
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Well what is web3, Web3 represents the next phase of the internet and, perhaps, of organizing society. Web 1.0, the story goes, was the era of decentralized, open protocols, in which most online activity involved navigating to individual static webpages.

Web 2.0, which we’re living through now, is the era of centralization, in which a huge share of communication and commerce takes place on closed platforms owned by a handful of super-powerful corporations — think Google, Facebook, Amazon.

Web3 can break the world free of that monopolistic control.

At the most basic level, Web3 refers to a decentralized online ecosystem based on the blockchain.

In essence, it means I personally can become a provider or a co-provider of this overall service just as easily as anybody else in the world.

Decentralized Network

Are we “decentralized.” – the internet already is decentralized, isn’t it? No, data is processed and used by big companies, facebook, google and the banks. they can use your data, and in most cases you give them permission too.

What can you do with Web 3?

Well pretty much anything you can imagine, decentralized networks to process data. Open source and cheaper nodes and servers to host websites and data warehouses.

With concepts such as Proof of Useful work which flux is working on. There are new ways Web3 can be utilized, computational computing, Machine Learning and AI for example.

Also having the ability to share share encrypted peer to peer data, without having to pay the big tech companies.

Decentralized Applications

Decentralized Apps, well what can these do? They can run search engines such as presearch. Decentralized internet searches, no more seeing what google wants you to see.

I wanted to keep the article short, if you are interested follow the Newsletter for more and visit us on twitter.

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Flux Node Hardware – What do you need to set up a Cumulus Node?

Flux Node Hardware
Flux Node Hardware

Well the simple answer is, their are lots of options. If you have a pc that you don’t need anymore and meets the specs that would be the easiest way to start. I now have 5 nodes hosted at home and you can possibly add up to 8 with uPnP setup on your router.

Network Requirements

Next in this section, I will discuss internet connection and the router. The current requirement is 25 Mb/s up and down. So if you don’t meet this I would think about maybe using a VPS. I have fibre and get good upload and download speeds.

Also stability of connection is important if you have long or frequent outages this is probably not for you.

The first thing I bought was a new router, the one supplied did not have the uPnP settings easily accessible and ready to set up. So I purchased one.

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Setting up a Hypervisor

Lets move on, no matter what you buy in terms of hardware. If you want to set up multiple nodes on 1 device using uPnP you are going to need a Hypervisor. I have already done a post on this which you can check out here.

Flux Node Requirements

In this section lets talk about the hardware requirements, you can see them all on the runonflux site here. But I have given you a breakdown below for cumulus nodes.

As you can see above, the requirements are not to intensive but please note these could change in the future.

My Hardware

Lets move on and discuss hardware. I had a CPU mining PC which I have reused for this. This spec is based on that setup but cheaper. I think a Ryzen 3900 x is a bit overkill, but if you want to squeeze an extra node in you can consider it.

I am going to revise the above, a 3900x or 3950x second hand from eBay like mine would not be overkill. You could spec up everything to get an extra node from the below.

Other Hardware Options

If you want to set up a single Node you can try out the Raspberry Pi or Jetson they are both viable options. You may also want to try a mini pc that can handle more than 1 node.

Ok, if you want to do your own research, I will give you a breakdown of what I looked for and why. I am presuming you already have a mouse and keyboard you can borrow for setting this up.



Newest Beelink Mini Pc SER4 with AMD 4800 Processor (8C/16T, up to 4,2GHz), 32G DDR4 RAM

Raspberry Pi 4 8GB RAM


I have a Ruby Nuc with the same CPU as this. With an upgrade to the SSD it can handle multiple nodes. Also check the ssd fits the requirements.

You will need to buy the case and accessories. I would suggest something with good cooling as its going to be on all the time.

Number of Cumulus Nodes



More information

  • CPU: I looked for price to meet the thread requirements above. Also as you need a motherboard as well, this could drive up price.
  • Motherboard: to use a Hypervisor, you are going to need a motherboard that supports virtualization. You will need to enable this on setup.
  • RAM: The thing I would look for is reliability and price, I would not cheap out on this as the machine is going to be on all the time.
  • Boot Drive: Again reliability and price are what to look for. I have used the Sabrent ones and given them some real hammer and there all still working.
  • PSU: You wont need a 1000 watt PSU, as it probably wont be efficient on the Power Curve. Instead look for something cheaper and again reliable.
  • Frame: You can use an old case if you want or a PC case. Mine is open as you can get some RGB, I like the RGB.
  • GPU: The cheapest you can get, you only need this for setup.

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