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Our GPU Mining Journey – GPU Breakdown


I have been meaning to write a post breaking down my GPUs, giving you the breakdown on my journey so far.

Mining has been good recently, I started in December 2020 with a single GPU in my gaming rig and have now accumulated 29 graphics cards delivering 1.1 GH/s on Ethereum.

Just a quick warning, gpu mining can be addictive. I have spent a lot of time trying to get my rigs to be efficient and also increasing the hash rates to maximize the potential of the cards.

This post will probably expand in the future to include my new gpu’s, so please bookmark and check back with us in the future.

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Graphics Card Breakdown

Firstly, to start with the first GPU, it was a RX 580 for my gaming PC. Great card which I wanted to use for VR. It did not quite have the power so I upgraded to a 5700 XT, this gave me 2 graphics cards. I built 2 gaming PC’s and started mining these on windows when not in use.

RX580 8 GB

This is the one, I am sure a lot of you are familiar with it. You have to do a bios mod linked to get its full potential of 31-32 MH’s. Now I have a few more of these model. 4 In total running at:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 720
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1150
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2100 
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

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Watch this space – More of our GPUs coming soon.

6600 XT / 5700 XT Mining Rig Build – 197 MH/s!


A great rig to build, this is my AMD 6600 XT / 5700 XT mining rig running on HiveOS. However, this tutorial can be used with any operating system and or Nvidia cards as well.

When comparing Nvidia and AMD graphics cards, the main difference is in the chips at the core. Each is compatible with a host of different cryptocurrency algorithms.

6600 XT / 5700 XT Mining Rig Build Parts List

Before starting the build, the first thing you need to do is research and purchase the required parts, here is my parts list for this build and reason for purchase.

Part ListReasonOur Choice
CPU: AMD Athlon 3000G 2-Core, 4-Thread Unlocked Desktop Processor with Radeon GraphicsThis comes with a cooler so no need to order separately, has onboard graphics so you don’t loose any MH/s on a display and runs at a low TDP of 35 watts.View Here
Motherboard: X470 GAMING PLUS MAX6 pcie slots, perfect for a 6 GPU Build and generally good on price. In my view good value for money, it has 4g decoding.View Here
RAM: Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3200MHz C16 Desktop Memory KitBuy a 16 gig kit and split the ram for 2 rigs – it works out cheaper.View Here
Fans: upHere 5-Pack 120mm Silent Intelligent Control RGB Fan Adjustable Colorful Fans with Controller and Remote,PF1206-5I bought the no RGB Antecs – but on checking again now I would go with these – loving the RGB.View Here
Boot Drive: SanDisk Ultra Flair USB 3.0 Flash Drive

If you are not CPU mining this should do the job. Otherwise check out our parts list for a SSD – either is fine its just preference.View Here
Server PSU:  1200W 94% Platinum Common Slot Power Supply PSUI have left room for expansion on this rig – 1200 watts is probably a bit overkill. But this does not make much noise at these levels and are cheaper than ATX PSUs and come with platinum efficiency.View Here
Risers: Ubit PCIe Riser, 3 in 1 1x to 16x Pcie Riser Board with LED Light, Custom-made 60 cm USB 3.0 cable, 3 Power Options (6 Pin/SATA/Molex) – Ethereum Bitcoin Crypto Currency Mining – 6 PackNever had any issues with these risers, they have been reliable for this build.View Here
Motherboard Power: PCI-E 6PIN Input DC 12V 300W DC-ATX-300W 24Pin PICO ATX Switch PSU Power Su E1B9This Pico switch with a male 6 pin to the breakout board will work – although if something is going to go wrong it could be this – you could also use a cheap ATX PSU alongside this to power the motherboard and utilize this to power the GPUs.View Here
Frame: Mining Rig Frame, Up to 8GPU Mining Rig Case Steel Open Air Miner Mining Frame, Mining AccessoriesEasy to assemble – came with a power button and it was cheaper than a Veddha which I also have, only criticism would be if you wanted to stack cases.View Here
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GPU Overclock Settings

Please adjust the overclocks in small increments to find the ideal sweet spot for your GPU. Some GPUs will perform differently due to the silicone lottery so please do your own research.

These are all HiveOS settings – if you are using windows try doubling them.

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ASUS ROG Strix AMD Radeon RX 5700XT Overclocked 8G GDDR6 HDMI DisplayPort Gaming Graphics Card 

Sapphire Technology Pulse AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

PowerColor Fighter AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

ASUS Dual AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT OC Edition 8GB GDDR6 Gaming Graphics Card 

GIGABYTE Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming OC PRO 8G Graphics Card, WINDFORCE 3X Cooling System

Ethereum 52 MH/s - DPM 5
Core Clock (CClock): 1380
Memory Clock (MClock): 910
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Rig Assembly

  1. Research and buy parts
  2. Un-package everything
  3. Install an OS on SSD/USB Flash Drive – ready for installing on step 4 (See HiveOS install or choose an OS of your choice – I recommend HiveOS, it makes everything easier as its build for mining).
  4. Install processor, RAM and Boot Drive on motherboard
  5. Plug in all riser cables (only applicable if you are dual mining) or a cheap GPU only while you complete installation and setup – this can be removed afterwards.
  6. Place motherboard on mount.
  7. Plug in SSD/SATA hard drive
  8. Connect all GPUs to riser cables and fasten them to custom case. You might need to experiment for optimal spacing to keep the cards cool.
  9. Plug in all power supply connections.
  10. Connect mouse, monitor and keyboard and an internet connection
  11. Check all connections once more
  12. Fire it up and install the operating system and mining software (see additional instructions below).
  13. Make sure fans are fully functional. Start the mining software, tweak settings for maximum hash rates and let it run!

Motherboard Software Configuration

Every motherboard is different but in general you want to do these updates.

  1. Update the motherboard to the latest BIOS using a USB thumb drive.
  2. Configure Motherboard BIOS with the following settings changes:
    • PCIE Subset settings – set these to Gen 1
    • Above 4G Decoding (cryptocurrency mining) should be set to Enabled
    • Turn off HD Audio
    • Save and reboot

HiveOS Installation

HiveOS have a great guide on getting started, here is our referral link:-

Setting up a Flight Sheet

  1. First step add your wallet
  2. Select coin
  3. Select the wallet you just added
  4. Select your pool
  5. Click configure pool and select the closest server
  6. Select the miner
  7. Click Apply and then Click the to the moon button.

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RX 6600 Non XT Mining Overview and Overclocks – 30 MH/s at 55 watts!


Awesome job yet again AMD, the AMD Radeon RX 6600 non XT version offers an attractive hash rate for Ethereum mining when power consumption is considered at just 55 watts. The AMD RX 6600 XT already offered an attractive hash rate relative to its power draw, and now the AMD RX 6600 Non XT looks to compete with it and also the RTX 3060 for Ethereum mining.

RX 6600 Non XT Mining Hashrates

EthereumEthash30.0 Mh/s55 Watts

RX 6600 Non XT Mining Overclocks

Next, we are going to talk about overclocks, please change in small increments to find the ideal sweet spot for your GPU. Some GPUs will perform differently due to the silicone lottery so please do your own research.

RX 6600 Non XT Eth Mining Overclocks

If two numbers are provided, first will be for Windows the second will be for a Linux-based Mining OS.

  • Power Limit (%): 55 Watts / VDD 620
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1305 / 1000
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 1900 / 950
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

RX 6600 Non XT Mining Profitability

Where to Buy – Recommended Product

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About this item

  • Video Memory: 8GB GDDR6
  • Stream Processor: 1792
  • Game Clock: 2044MHz
  • Boost Clock: 2491MHz
  • Memory Clock: 14 Gbps

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GPU Mining | Technology Reviews

Best Mining GPUs


Check out our list of the best mining GPUs, below are links to all our reviews including, hashrates, overclocks and any GPU issues and advice including updating Bios Mods and Thermals.

The below hashrates are only a guide as these can be affected by a number of variables such as the silicone lottery, variations in models and bios settings and overclocks.

Hover over or click the Ethereum square for over clocks. If two numbers are provided, first will be for Windows the second will be for a Linux-based Mining OS.

I will be updating this with lots more info in the future. Including Flux, RVN and much more.

Graphics Card


GPU Review Link

  • Ethereum: 125 MH/s

    320 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 85% or 330w Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1200 or 2400 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 102 MH/s

    Power Limit (%): 230 Watts Core Clock (CClock): 0 / -170 Memory Clock (MClock): 1300 / 2600 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 100 MH/s

    230 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 75% or 240w Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1200 or 2400 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 87 MH/s

    270 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): ~80% or 280 (W) Core Clock (CClock): NA Memory Clock (MClock): NA Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 65 MH/s

    150 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): 800 Power Limit (%): N/A Core Clock (CClock): 1200 Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 61 MH/s

    130 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 95% or 130w Core Clock (CClock): NA Memory Clock (MClock): +1900 or 3800 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 62 MH/s

    125 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 55% or 130w Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1300 or 2600 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Flux: 61 Sol/s

    125 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 55% or 130w Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1300 or 2600 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 57 MH/s

    150 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): ~70% or 150 (W) Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1100 or 2200 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 56.5 MH/s

    135 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): 780 Power Limit (%): NA Core Clock (CClock): 1400 Memory Clock (MClock): 1800 or 900 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 48 MH/s

    120 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): 915 Power Limit (%): NA Core Clock (CClock): 1115 Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1075 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 42-44 MH/s

    125 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): ~75% or 130 (W) Core Clock (CClock): +150 Memory Clock (MClock): +800 or 1600 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 42-44 MH/s

    Power Limit (%): 65% or 130w Core Clock (CClock): +40 Memory Clock (MClock): +800 or 1600 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Flux: 56.9 Sol/s

    Power Limit (%): 65% or 130w Core Clock (CClock): +40 Memory Clock (MClock): +800 or 1600 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 40 MH/s

    90 Watts
  • Ethereum: 41 MH/s

    65 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): 90% or 65w Core Clock (CClock): 1350 Memory Clock (MClock): +1400 or 2800 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 32 MH/s

    50 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): 640 Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS) Power Limit (%): NA Core Clock (CClock): 965 Memory Clock (MClock): 2270 or 1135 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 36 MH/s

    RTX 3060 LHR Ethash (ETH) Mining Overclocks: Core Voltage (VDD): NA Power Limit (%): 65% or 120w Core Clock (CClock): 0 Memory Clock (MClock): +1300 or 1600 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 32 MH/s

    Power Limit – 60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS 60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS Core Clock -1004 Memory Clock +1100 Windows / +2200 HiveOS Fan Speed 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 31 MH/s

    75 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): NA Power Limit (%): 60% or 80 (W) Core Clock (CClock): -200 Memory Clock (MClock): +1100 or 2200 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 31 MH/s

    95 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): 850 Power Limit (%): N/A Core Clock (CClock): 1150 Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 31 MH/s

    95 Watts Core Voltage (VDD): N/A Power Limit (%): ~65% or 120 (W) Core Clock (CClock): +150 Memory Clock (MClock): +1100 or 2200 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 31 MH/s

    75 Watts - 31 MH/s Core Voltage (VDD): 750 Power Limit (%): N/A Core Clock (CClock): 1100 Memory Clock (MClock): 2000 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 30 MH/s

    55 Watts Power Limit (%): 55 Watts / VDD 620 Core Clock (CClock): 1305 / 1000 Memory Clock (MClock): 1900 / 950 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 30 MH/s

    Core Voltage (VDD): NA Power Limit (%): 70% or 140w Core Clock (CClock): +100 Memory Clock (MClock): +1000 or 2000 Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.
  • Flux: 40 Sol/s

    55 Watts Power Limit (%): 55 Watts / VDD 620 Core Clock (CClock): 1305 / 1000 Memory Clock (MClock): 1900 / 950 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.
  • Ethereum: 22 MH/s

    Core Voltage (VDD): NA Power Limit (%): 60% or 125w Power Limit (%): ~60% or 75 (W) Core Clock (CClock): +150 Memory Clock (MClock): +700 or 1400 Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

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T-Rex: Unlock on LHR GPU Dual Mining – Awesome Job!


You can now DUAL mine ETH (~30%) and other coins (~70%) simultaneously with LHR cards using more of its potential.

Available combinations along with memory requirements are:

  • ETH+ERGO (8GB+)
  • ETH+RVN (8GB+ on linux, 10GB+ on win)
  • ETH+CFX (10GB+)

WIKI – https://github.com/trexminer/T-Rex/wiki/LHR

Mining Tips:

Please see “LHR-unlock” bat/sh files for configuration examples.

T-Rex’s “–lhr-tune” is set to 30 by default, but can be set higher or lower depending on your needs / overclock settings.

For all dual mining combinations a high memory overclock is recommended to reduce the chance of LHR lock.

Additionally for ERGO, since it’s known to be LHR limited, find overclock settings that don’t trigger LHR locks in single mode, and then use them for ETH+ERGO dual mode.

* (ethash) “standard” LHR unlock changes and improvements:

Automatically detect LHR cards even if –lhr-tune is not specified (except 3060 rev.1, for them you still need to manually set –lhr-tune)

New parameter –lhr-low-power reduces power consumption in LHR mode at a cost of a slightly lower hashrate (start from –lhr-tune 68)

Change scale of –lhr-tune from [1-8] to percentage of the GPU’s full hashrate the miner tries to achieve. The old values in the [1-8] will be automatically converted to percentage, no change required.

Recommended starting LHR tune values: 71 in normal mode, 68 in low power consumption mode.

* (ethash) Allow dual ETH+ZIL mining without having to rely on proxying your ETH traffic through a ZIL-pool (see “ETH+ZIL-ezil” bat/sh file on how to start it)

Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

No you can realize its full potential – check out this 3080Ti.

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EVGA GeForce RTX 3080 Ti FTW3 Ultra Gaming, 12G-P5-3967-KR, 12GB


Linux: https://trex-miner.com/download/t-rex-0.24.0-linux.tar.gz

Windows: https://trex-miner.com/download/t-rex-0.24.0-win.zip

Github: https://github.com/trexminer/T-Rex/releases

First Youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/embed/aRDsV5qlfuQ

NFT Marketplace Review


Estimated reading time: 13 minutes

With NFTs exploding in popularity—and price—we take a look at the marketplaces where you can buy and sell these unique digital art tokens. Please do research on the artist, I learnt this lesson when one of my cheaper NFTs was delisted.

In brief

  • NFTs, or non-fungible tokens, are unique crypto tokens that are linked to digital content, such as artwork.
  • A number of NFT marketplaces have sprung up where users can buy and sell NFTs.

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I am going to be going through this list in the next few weeks and will update with my user experiences.

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have been around for a few years now, but 2021 was the year they exploded into the public consciousness.

The cryptographically unique tokens represent a title of ownership over digital content such as art, music or videos—but it’s the digital art scene that lit a fire under the NFT market, with record-breaking sales such as Beeple’s $69 million auction at Christie’s grabbing headlines the world over.about:blank

Since then, enthusiasts have seized on one NFT craze after another, dropping thousands (and in some cases millions) of dollars on CryptoPunksBored Apes and Loot.

NFT Art and Collectables for Beginners: The Must Have Guide for Understanding Non Fungible Tokens (NFTs)

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But where are people buying these NFTs, you might ask? A thriving virtual high street of NFT marketplaces has sprung up, selling digital art and collectibles at every conceivable price point. Here’s a run-through of some of the leading platforms.

Read our NFT beginner’s guide


OpenSea is the original peer-to-peer NFT marketplace, and far and away the largest. At the time of writing, it has a total trading volume of over $6.5 billion (according to analytics platform DappRadar), offering NFTs of everything from in-game items and collectibles, to artwork, music, GIFs, and more.

Signing up is as easy as connecting your MetaMask wallet, although other wallets including Coinbase Wallet, Bitski, Formatic and more are also supported.


Once you’re connected, buying an NFT is a simple process; you need to browse through the various collections or searching for something that takes your fancy, before putting in an offer and seeing if it’s accepted.

Uploading your own NFT creation is child’s play, too. Simply head to the “Create” tab, connect your wallet as a creator and you can upload your NFT, fill out the description, and wait for the millions to roll in.

Review: Do research on the artist my first NFT was delisted – the user interface is good but it takes time time to do the transfers on Coinbase wallet, up to 45 mins.

2.Axie Marketplace

NFT-powered video game Axie Infinity plays host to the second-largest NFT marketplace, with a total trading volume of more than $2.1 billion on Dappradar. It trades exclusively in Axies: cute, Pokémon-like digital pets which players can buy and trade on the Axie Marketplace.

You can also create new Axies via the game’s built-in breeding mechanics and sell them on the Marketplace. Unlike art NFTs, which are collected for collecting’s sake, Axie Infinity’s NFTs have a purpose: you can use them in-game to battle against monsters and other players, earning tokens that can be put towards breeding new creatures. So lucrative have Axie Infinity’s NFTs proven, that some players in the Philippines and Indonesia are making a living through breeding and trading them. 

Axie Infinity is one of the most complex NFT services for new users to use, though, and you’ll have to jump through a number of hoops before you can even begin to play the game.

Axie Marketplace

Alongside an Ethereum wallet such as MetaMask, you’ll also need to set up a Ronin wallet, deposit ETH to Ronin, and buy a minimum of three Axies from the Axie market (which will set you back several hundred dollars). That’s not ideal for casual passersby, but it’s not beyond the capabilities of a seasoned crypto user.

3.CryptoPunks/Larva Labs

One of the earliest examples of NFTs on the Ethereum network, CryptoPunks is a series of 10,000 randomly generated characters with a pixel art aesthetic and unique attributes. While they could originally be grabbed for free, the only way you can own one today is to buy one.

That means heading to CryptoPunks creator Larva Labs’ marketplace, where the majority of sales take place. And buying one costs a lot; currently, the lowest-priced Punk will set you back 94.99 ETH (around $285,000), while the most valuable one sold on the marketplace (number 3100), traded hands for an absolutely insane $7.58 million. That explains Larva Labs’ all-time trading volume of $1.3 billion, then.


To get started, simply connect your MetaMask wallet, search through the list of available Punks (ones with red backgrounds are for sale), and enter your bid.

The hardest part of the process is convincing yourself to part with such a ludicrous amount of cash, but hey, that’s on you. The value of art is in the beholder, after all.

4.NBA Top Shot Marketplace

One of the first NFT series to gain traction with the wider public, NBA Top Shot is a set of digital trading cards featuring NBA video highlight clips. Once you purchase a pack, clips are stored in your secure, encrypted blockchain-verified wallet, where you can view them or re-sell them on the NBA Top Shot Marketplace.

The secret to NBA Top Shot’s success is that creators Dapper Labs have made it simple for the mainstream user to get started. The easiest way to sign up for NBA Top Shot is to link your Google account to Dapper, after which you’ll be asked to enter your phone number for SMS authentication.

NBA Top Shot

Following that, there are a few account setup steps to go through, including selecting your favorite team. Once that’s done you can join a drop on new packs, putting you into a virtual queue—after which you can grab a pack. After you verify via SMS (again), you can choose to pay with an existing crypto wallet, a Flow wallet, your Dapper balance, or, handily, a credit card.


One of the leading NFT marketplaces on Ethereum, Rarible is a community-owned platform that showcases a wide range of digital art and collectibles. It currently has the fifth-highest all-time trading volume according to Dappradar, with $210 million having changed hands.

Similar to OpenSea, you can buy and sell all sorts of media. Sellers also have the option to create more than one NFT for a single image, selling it more than once.


Rarible’s user interface is simple enough for relative crypto novices to use; users who have dabbled in similar NFT marketplaces like OpenSea will easily feel right at home.

You can log in using a variety of different crypto wallets, including MetaMask, Coinbase Wallet, MyEtherWallet, or any mobile wallet using WalletConnect. Once signed in, you can use funds in your wallet to buy, or even top up your wallet with fiat currency via bank transfer or debit card.


SuperRare positions itself as a slightly higher-end alternative to Rarible; where Rarible’s interface bombards you with a dizzying array of flickering GIFs and live auctions, SuperRare has an altogether more pared-back, minimalist appearance.

It’s also more heavily curated, billing itself as a social platform that aims to encourage the creation and collection of crypto art. It works closely with artists, requiring work to be submitted and approved before it’s allowed to be listed; quality over quantity, in other words.


Signing up to SuperRare requires a supported wallet like MetaMask or Formatic. There’s an extra step that involves creating a username and password that’s linked to your wallet address, but it only takes a few seconds, so it won’t be long before you’re perusing the platform’s selection of exclusive NFTs.



KnownOrigin has a much smaller all-time trading volume—just $6.9 million—and, like SuperRare, aims to provide a more curated, gallery-like experience for the discerning NFT connoisseur. All of its artwork files are held on IPFS, which provides a measure of protection for the underlying assets. With a strong focus on digital art, this is a marketplace that shuns the crazier aspects of the NFT world, so you’ll find no wacky avatars or cute monsters here. 

At the risk of sounding like a broken record, KnownOrigin is simple to use. All you have to do is connect a wallet like MetaMask or Formatic, and you’ll be bidding on your own coveted NFT assets in no time.



Foundation currently has a total trading volume of just over $79 million, billing itself as a “creative playground” for artists. It’s played host to a number of notable sales, including the NFT of iconic Internet meme Nyan CatEdward Snowden’s first NFT and an audiovisual digital collectible created by producer Richard D. James, better known as Aphex Twin.

Once you’ve connected your MetaMask or other software wallet using WalletConnect, Foundation’s marketplace is simple to operate, letting you place bids on timed auctions just like you would with a regular auction site.


MakersPlace is another boutique NFT marketplace that prides itself on hosting numerous exclusive collections of digital fine art. Its total volume might be on the lower end ($23.5 million at the time of writing), but it features plenty of one-off creations that add to its exclusivity.

In February 2021, the site memorably went down when iconic crypto artist Beeple offered a collection of NFTs for $1 a pop. It’s also hosted a number of NFT drops by musicians, with the likes of T-PainShakira and Rage Against the Machine’s Tom Morello having signed up to the platform.

It’s easy enough to sign up at MakersPlace as a buyer, and can even use your Google or Facebook account logins to save time.


You’ll have to select five artists to follow as part of the registration process and can then purchase creations with either your MetaMask ETH balance, or (handily) your credit card. If you’re a creator then you’ll have to request an invitation to join the platform, filling out an online form for the curators’ approval.

10.Nifty Gateway

One of the first wave of big NFT marketplaces, Nifty Gateway has a powerful backer in the form of crypto exchange Gemini, which acquired the platform back in 2019. It proved to be a prescient move; amid the NFT boom, Nifty Gateway made headlines with one of the first multimillion-dollar NFT sales, brokering the sale of Beeple’s CROSSROAD for $6.6 million in February 2021. By May, the platform had hit $300 million in gross merchandise value.

The platform offers a heavily curated selection of NFT drops, on a tri-weekly schedule, playing host to artists including The WeekndGrimes and Eminem. It also has a marketplace where you can browse curated collections, verified artists and a broader selection of work from unverified artists.

Nifty Gateway

Getting started is a relatively streamlined process thanks to Nifty Gateway’s close integration with Gemini. First up, you’ll need to register for the site (and verify your identity using Stripe, if you’re planning to sell NFTs). You’ll need to load up your account with some funds, either by linking a credit card or by sending some ETH to a deposit address. Once that’s done, you’re then ready to buy NFTs from the marketplace.

You also have the option of linking your Gemini exchange account with your Nifty Gateway account, enabling you to use your Gemini exchange account balance for purchases and withdrawals (your Gemini account can be topped up using bank transfer, wire transfer, crypto deposits and trades).



BakerySwap is one of the smaller NFT marketplaces compared to the likes of OpenSea, but that’s not entirely surprising; where most NFT marketplaces are built on Ethereum, BakerySwap is one of the first to be launched on Binance Smart Chain (BSC). The NFT marketplace makes up one section of the platform, which also allows users to trade and swap liquidity assets directly with each other. 

The NFT marketplace is straightforward enough, with the usual MetaMask connection required. Note that because this platform is run on the Binance Smart Chain, NFT assets can only be purchased with BNB, as opposed to the more common ETH.

12.Binance NFT Marketplace

Binance NFT marketplace

Binance NFT marketplace is, unsurprisingly, an NFT platform provided courtesy of the world’s largest crypto exchange, Binance. The company aims to provide an NFT marketplace with exclusive offerings and partnerships, attracting the exchange’s formidable user base to its NFT platform.

If you’ve already got a Binance account then you’ll be pleased to hear it’ll automatically work with Binance NFT. Once you’re in, it’s as easy as bidding on any assets that catch your eye. You can use ETH, BNB, and BUSD, depending on what the creators have listed.


Solanart screenshot

The most recent NFT mini-boom has taken place on Solana, a rival blockchain to Ethereum. Collections such as Degenerate Ape AcademyAurory and SolPunks have seen trading volumes of hundreds of millions of dollars, trading hands on marketplaces such as Solanart.

Unlike OpenSea, Solanart is a curated set of NFT collections, so offers a relatively limited selection of NFTs for purchase.

To get started with buying Solana NFTs on Solanart, you’ll need to download a Solana wallet such as Phantom or Solflare, and load it up with Solana from your exchange of choice. Phantom offers a handy direct integration with crypto exchange FTX, which makes it a cinch to deposit funds from that exchange.

From there, it’s just a matter of clicking through to your chosen NFT, connecting your Solana wallet to the marketplace, and placing your bid.

Home » News

GTX 1660 Super – Mining Overview


Estimated reading time: 3 minutes

The GTX 1660 Super in my view is still a great card for beginners to mining and if you can get hold of it for the right price it’s a good starter if your new to mining. As this only requires once power cable into the GPU.

The card features 6 GB of GDDR6 memory, the Turing architecture, and memory speed at 14 Gbps. According to the manufacturer, the GTX 1660 Super outranks its younger brother in performance by 20%. As for the Nvidia GTX 1060 6 GB, there is a 75% advantage. Like other Nvidia graphics cards, the 1660 Super can mine ZCoin, Ethereum, Ravencoin, Beam, and other top cryptocurrencies.

Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Super Overclocking for Mining

To maximize hash rate you are probably going to need to configure additional settings. Choose an optimal GPU overclocking value to maximize hash rate and keep energy consumption at an acceptable level. Algorithms may require core overclocking, memory overclocking, or both.

The main overclocking principle is stable work and maximum hash rate at an acceptable energy consumption level. It’s important to remember that each GPU is unique.

If for one it is possible to overclock the core to 2000 MHz, for a similar one you may be able to overclock only to 1900 MHz. Make sure to adjust overclocking settings for each card individually. Find out more: GPU Overclocking on Different Algorithms.

Following that, as you can see its on par with the 1660ti for mining ethereum but looses out on some of the other algorythms. To get to this all I did was set to -1004 for the Hynix memory type.

Next, in this section we will go into some different overclocks:-

GTX 1660 Super Ethereum Mining Overclocks – 32 MH/s

  1. Power Limit – 60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS

    60 % in Windows / 75 Watts HiveOS

  2. Core Clock


  3. Memory Clock


  4. Fan Speed

    70% or more/less based on your temps.

Flux Mining Overclocks – 29 Sol/s

  • Core Voltage (VDD): NA
  • Power Limit (%): 65% or 85 (W)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 0
  • Memory Clock (MClock): -1004 
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.

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ZOTAC Gaming GeForce GTX 1660 Super 6GB GDDR6 192-bit Gaming Graphics Card

EVGA 06G-P4-1068-KR GeForce GTX 1660 Super Sc Ultra Gaming

MSI Gaming GeForce GTX 1660 Super 192-bit HDMI/DP 6GB GDRR6 HDCP Support DirectX 12 Dual Fan VR Ready OC Graphics Card

Other GPU Options

At this moment in time I would also recommend the 6600xt and 1660ti for beginners – purely based on ease of use and efficiency.

GPU Profitability

Check out the eth calculator for the latest payback prediction.


Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

Related Articles – check them out!

Home » News

Best Open Air Mining Rig Frames


Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

Check out the below mining frames, I have selected these for ease of assembly and airflow to the GPUs. Please let us know your thoughts on your favourite frame and leave a comment.

Our Top 3 Open Air Frames

AAAwave The Sluice V2 12GPU Open Frame Mining Rig Frame Chassis for Crypto Currency Ethereum Ravencoin Ergo Zcoin

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Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C

Mining Rig Frame, Up to 8GPU Mining Rig Case Steel Open Air Miner Mining Frame, Mining Accessories Tools for Crypto Coin Currency Bitcoin ETH ETC ZEC Mining

AAAwave The Sluice V2 12GPU Open Frame Mining Rig Frame Chassis for Crypto Currency Ethereum Ravencoin Ergo Zcoin

Best for GPU spacing and capacity of GPUs

  • Easy to install with strong structure. non-marring and non-slip rubber feet. support dual power supply.
  • The product is an empty shelf without fans, switches, lights, cpu, gpu, psu, motherboards, and cables.
  • High-quality metal, strong & durable, fully-protects your gpu and electronic device.
  • Good design – designed according to standard holes of atx motherboards, graphics cards, hard drives, and power supplies.
  • advantage – super cooling design for heat dissipation. enhances the cooling and extends the service life of graphics cards. online support 7 days/week. 1 year warranty and 30-day return guarantee.

Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C V3D Aluminum Stackable Mining Rig Open Air Frame Case for Ethereum (ETH,ETC) ZCash (ZEC) Monero (XMR)

Best for Durability and stacking – very solid

  • Cool | stackable | reliable | quiet |simplistic and compact design with powerful visual impact. high quality aluminum alloy material. strong, durable and available. fully protecting your gpu and electronic device.
  • The installation process have been extremely simplified by using only a few of screws.the location of the installation of the graphics card can be adjusted, which is guaranteed to be compatible with any kind of graphics card.
  • Note: if you have any pre-sales and after-sales questions, please contact us by email, we will reply to you within 24 hours.
  • High-quality and solid aluminum alloy painted elegantly with glossy black. more detailed-oriented logo design brings a new veddha branding.precisely laser cutted material with excellent thermal conductivity, greatly enhancing the overall heat dissipation performance.
  • Simplistic and compact design. 10 minutes installation. risers permanently mounted on the rig, which gives more stable connection between risers and graphics cards. professional design for miner, accelerating the air convection, enhancing the cooling and extending the service life of graphics cards.

How to Build a Mining Rig – Step by Step Guide


Mining is one of the ways through which you can get yourself some of the valuable cryptocurrencies out there, with the right equipment. I will updating this step by step iteratively – please leave your comments and thoughts.

Let’s look at a step by step guide on how you can build a mining rig to help you start mining coins.

What is a mining rig?

Mining rigs are simply powerful computer systems set up to carry out mining of a cryptocurrency.

A rig could be a specialized and dedicated system that is used for mining or otherwise be meant for other operations like gaming and be utilized for mining when needed.

How does a mining rig work?

A mining rig works by using the mining software on a miner to hook the mining hardware to a given mining pool.

The mining rig points the rig’s hash rate at the pool before participating in the process of securing and completing transactions on the network.

You get rewarded when your rig helps the pool add a block to the blockchain.

What are the different types of mining rigs?

1 CPU mining

This is the process of mining crypto using a CPU processor to perform the computational algorithms to solve blocks. However, it is no longer widely used.

What are the pros and cons of CPU mining?


  • The CPU mining rig is inexpensive since it can be done with an ordinary PC.
  • You can mine other newer altcoins with CPU easily.


  • It is the slowest form of mining; almost obsolete.
  • Low hash rate.
  • It’s not profitable because it’s slow.

2 GPU mining

GPU mining rig involves the use of graphics card to complete the mining process in a network. 

What are the pros and cons of GPU mining?


  • Higher hashing power compared to CPU.
  • Useful in mining a wide variety of cryptocurrencies that have different hashing algorithms.
  • Profitable when done properly.


  • Quite expensive.

What to consider when building a mining rig?

Consider the following when building your own mining rig.

1 Hash rate

Hash rate refers to the total number of calculations that the mining hardware can handle every second when the mining process is on.

We measure hash rates in terms of their megahashes (MH/s), gigahashes (GH/s), and terahashes (TH/s) per second.

In mining, the higher your hash rate, the more it is likely that you may end up successful in getting a transaction secured and verified.

This means a higher chance of getting an ROI.

2 Energy consumption

Cryptocurrency mining consumes huge amounts of power and therefore, the cost of electricity is always higher. Beware of how much that given to set up will consume vs. the expected ROI.

To be on the safe side, look at the hardware’s power consumption in watts before making a purchase.

To find out your hardware’s energy consumption, take the hash rate figure and divide it by the wattage of that hardware.

3 Hardware prices

It is good to consider the prices of the hardware equipment you are going to use.

The cost to put up the rig should be proportional to the expected profits. Check the market for cost-effective tools that give you performance and yet are not too expensive.

You can use Amazon or BestBuy as a reference.

4 Maintenance

Maintenance is a key component if you want to get the best out of your DIY assembled mining rig.

As you set up the rig, consider the maintenance costs, the frequency of doing so and how that can be effectively done to ensure you have an output equivalent to the costs.

Things like the cooling system need frequent checks, so consider getting one that won’t bog you down with constant failure.

How to build a mining rig?

How to build a mining rig may appear a daunting task at first but once you get everything you need, you will find it much easier than you initially thought.

And therefore, the very first thing is to assemble everything you will need so as to save yourself the hassle of running up and down trying to locate this or that.

Photo courtesy of CryptosRUs

It is also important to be accessible to:

  • Reliable electricity supply.
  • Ethernet (wireless can do, but Ethernet is the best).

Here is what you need to start with:


A motherboard is simply that big flat component of your computer that everything else plugs into. Whatever device you choose must be compatible with the MOBO.

The motherboard will determine the kind of CPU to use, the number of GPUs you can add, and memory limit.

To check if the CPU and your MOBO are compatible, use the Part Picker tool for PCs. A good MOBO for mining rigs should have the capacity for at least 6 GPUs.


Another very significant factor to consider is where you want to put up your rig. This is important because we want to have our rig in a well-ventilated place that would aid in cooling the rig. It is important to keep your GPU rigs in a cool area because they tend to overheat.

The GPU should have an optimal temperature to operate in.

Cooler rigs will have a better output which is our aim. So you should use AC, air duct boosters or oscillating fans to keep the room cool.

Graphics card

You will, of course, need a graphics card (or many of them) which is the main component that will be solving difficult mining problems. This is key to the profitability of your IG so please do your own research. The choice and variety here are massive but I will link in some products below to help you get started.

Power supply

How much power do I need for my rig? That solely depends on the hardware used.

Since your graphics card will draw the most power, please refer to its manual to see the max power consumption. If you have more cards in the rig the desired power could be calculated as follows:

Thus 1500-1600W power supply would give you plenty of room for your rig without risking any overload.

Remember the 80% rule – you don’t want to use more than 80% of the PSUs capacity in most cases.

Are you ready to mine? Let’s build our mining rig.

1 Setting up your rig frame

Get something that can hold your rig’s hardware together. If you are building a smaller rig, an old computer case will do.

However, you can also opt for commonly used items in the home like milk crates, wire racks or wooden frames.

Alternatively, you can go for one that is ready-made; though you’d need to be sure it will fit the rig you intend to build.

2 Set up your motherboard

Place the motherboard on a flat non-static surface and carefully insert the CPU component into the socket.

Use thermal paste to have your custom cooler attached to the CPU. Learn how to correctly apply thermal paste to CPU or GPU if you’ve never done it before.

Make sure not to tamper with the CPU fan. Connect this CPU fan to a 3-4 jack and then to the RAM.

Place the motherboard onto the rig frame and secure it into place using screws. Be attentive not to have the motherboard touching any metallic surface (metal surfaces are conductive).

Connect your SSD to the motherboard and secure it into place too.

3 Install the PSU

Connect the motherboard to the power supply unit using the 24-pin connector near the CPU. Use the 8-pin connector to connect the CPU to the PSU.

Then connect the SATA to the SSD. At this point, ensure the SSD has a power supply connection and that it has a SATA properly connected to the motherboard.

You should zip-tie any extra cables that may get in your way. It is sometimes challenging to have the wires in place neatly, so be patient and use zip ties to hold the wires in position.

With the PSU in place, install the Molex and the 6 pin or if otherwise, the 6 +2 cables into the power supply unit.

The next thing is to power the GPU risers. This is done from the SATA cables. Just take the SATA power cables and line them next to each GPU position along the rig.

4 Adding GPU risers

It is much easier to just have the USB and Molex cables installed into the RISER socket before attaching the GPU.

Secure your GPU to the rig frame before you proceed to connect the USB into the motherboard slot. Do this one riser at a time till all are done.

After you are done with the risers, connect all your PCIe cables to the GPUs. Every Molex cable comes with at least 3 connecting cables, so you should be able to use 2 of the 3 connectors on 2 different GPU cards.

For instance, I am imagining you have chosen to go with 5 cards. In this case, attach one card to the motherboard and the other 4 to the Risers.

Therefore, if you have 2 Molex cables, you should be able to connect all the other four cards.

5 Booting up

First, you must have an OS system of your choice on a USB drive.

When booting up for the first time, have your computer monitor connected to the motherboard. The connection should be either to the motherboard’s Graphics output or essentially to GPU.

Next, plug the PSU into the wall socket before you connect the Ethernet cable. You should then boot up the computer and go to BIOS. Getting into BIOS is usually automatic, but if it doesn’t seem to be getting you there, press the DEL button whiles the PC boots.

Go to Settings -> Power management and set your rig to automatically reboot in case of power outage.

Next, check the PCIE subsystem and set it to either gen 1 or gen 2. If the default is set to auto, that’s fine. Proceed to shut down your PC.

6 Reboot the system using the USB stick you installed

First, load the OS and go to windows. Once on windows, proceed to the website of the motherboard you used.

Use a second computer to download all the relevant drivers that are available.

Install the drivers and run windows update to have the computer system up to date.

7 Optimize windows – Not required with HiveOS

Disable superfetch. With the SSD in place, the will be the set up: Run -> Services -> superfetch (disable).

You should then disable all updates and make sure you cancel any scheduled tasks.

Download the latest version of video card drivers and then do an installation.

Once done with the installation, reboot your computer.

On booting up, go to Device Manager to check and verify that the system has detected all the GPUs.

8 GPU BIOS set up

Before you proceed, it is also prudent to make a backup of all the files. For the RX series, I recommend you go for Polaris Bios Editor.

Next, we want to set up our GPU by doing a BIOS flash. To do this, flash the BIOS of each and every GPU with AtiFlash.

Once the process is done, reboot your computer.

9 Download Mining Software – Not Required with HiveOS

On reboot, check once more if the system still detects all the cards.

Most profitable and easy to use mining software  – please check out HiveOS I moved to this instead of windows and never looked back. They have a great community and lots of support.

Referral Link – https://hiveos.farm?ref=340660

The next thing is to choose a pool and set up your pool’s credentials.

Choosing a pool is essential if you are to realize a good ROI because if you choose to solo mine, the returns will be too little and far apart. These links will give you some valuable information to start and Ethermine is a good pool.

Check out – Poolwatch.IO

Selection of software and Ethermine Pool

You should now go ahead and set up the .BAT file to automatically start the mining software of your choice on system startup.

Go to Windows -> Start -> Programs -> Startup and have a .BAT file shortcut created. The file should either come with the mining software or you have to create it manually.

10 Download and install overclocking software – Not Required with HiveOS

Download the MSI AfterburnerSAPPHIRE TriXX or any other overclocking application.

Use that to make adjustments to the GPUs core, voltage and memory. Aim at having low voltage use but high memory clocks for crypto like ETH.

It is possible to lower the core clock when using one of the RX cards.

When mining other cryptocurrencies, it is advisable to set the rig at low voltage use but high core clocks.

For optimum output, tweak around with the settings until you get what’s best for you.

The value of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum has added to the attraction people have for them.

Mining is one of the most profitable ways of getting the coins. But it needs dedication and readiness to invest. As such, you need to do is have a good rig to help you get started.

Our Mining Rigs and Reviews

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Best Mining Rig Parts and Reviews


Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

Firstly, in order to build a mining rig there are a number of things to think about and parts to purchase. I have split some of these out below from my latest builds. A lot of these can be swapped out for an alternative option.

We make our recommendation focusing on efficiency and ease of use, ideal for beginners but do your own research as always.

I would recommend checking out nerdgearz.com for GPUs, Parallel Mining for server power supplies and accessories and mineshop.eu if you are in Europe.

Enter our discount code at nergearz.com TechSocialNetwork for a 2% discount.

AMD / Nvidia HiveOS Mining Rig Build – 215 MH/s with awesome RGB!

First things first, you can check out the full post here – check out the post. Here is the parts list. This build has room for expansion beyond 6 gpu’s easily.


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Mining Rig Part

Quick Review

Integrated graphic's and does the job for mining on an AM4 Motherboard.

Reliable and cheap to run HiveOS. Easily replaceable.

Has all the mining features required, 4g decoding etc. Also has some cool RGB at a reasonable price.

This rig has more power capacity to get to 80% of load. Having one of these allows me to add extra gpu's.

Good price, please pick up an extra pack of fans. I forgot and had to get another pack.

Parallel Mining supply some great bundles on server power supplies. You get the cables you need and can adapt your order as required. You will need a Pico switch as well to power the motherboard and cpu.

Great RGB with a controller at a reasonable price. The airflow is also reasonable

Updating my rigs to these ones going fowards, 8 capacitors and I have some white builds coming.

RTX 3070 / 2060 SUPER Mining Rig Build – Hash to burn

Check out the post.

Mining Rig Part

Quick Review

Amazon Link

CPU: AMD Ryzen 5 5600X 6-core, 12-Thread Unlocked Desktop Processor with Wraith Stealth Cooler

CPU was taken out of a gaming build I did, not bad on Raptoreum. 

Boot Drive: ADATA Ultimate Series: SU630 240GB Internal SATA Solid State Drive

These have been reliable for me and a reasonable price. You could also check out the Kingston SSD.

Motherboard: MSI MPG X570 GAMING PRO CARBON WIFI Motherboard

Quite expensive but came out of a gaming system, the quality is good and no reliability issues.

RAM: Corsair Vengeance LPX 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 DRAM 3200MHz C16 Desktop Memory Kit

Good quality ram, at a decent price. I find corsair to be a very reliable brand.

Splitter Card: PCIe 1 to 4 Riser Card, Pcie Splitter 1 to 4 PCI Riser Card

This rig has more power capacity to get to 80% of load. Having one of these allows me to add extra gpu's.

Mining Frame: Veddha T2 6 GPU 8 GPU Minercase V3C V3D Aluminum Stackable Mining Rig Open Air Frame Case

I bought this, its a great frame but only if you can get it an affordable price. After moving my rigs several times I kow realize why this has such a durable design compared to cheaper frames.

PSU: Corsair CP-9020139-UK HX1000 1000 W 80+ Platinum Fully Modular Power Supply Unit - Black

Never cheap out on an ATX PSU. You could also consider a server psu.

Fans: upHere RGB Series Case Fan,120mm Fan,Quiet Edition High Airflow Adjustable Color LED Case Fan for PC Cases-5 Pack

Great RGB with a controller at a reasonable price. The airflow is also reasonable.

Risers: Ubit 6-PCS PCI-E Riser 

Updating my rigs to these ones going fowards, 8 capacitors and I have some white builds coming.

All White Raptoreum Mining Rig – Parts

AMD 3900 X CPU

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Mining Rig Part

Quick Review

Amazon Link

CPU: AMD Ryzen 9 3900X 12-core, 24-thread unlocked desktop processor with Wraith Prism LED Cooler

Ryzen 9 3900's which have a hashrate of 3601 h/s each

Motherboard:MSI Arsenal Gaming AMD Ryzen 2ND and 3rd Gen AM4 M.2 USB 3 DDR4 DVI HDMI Crossfire ATX Motherboard (B450 TOMAHAWK MAX II)

The White Mortal Motherboard is out of stock so I went for this one due to the RGB and affordabilty.

RAM:Corsair Vengeance RGB Pro 16GB (2x8GB) DDR4 3200MHz C16 LED Desktop Memory - White

This is when the rig starts to get very white, Love the RGB and will always be useful in the futire if I do another gaming build.

PSU: Corsair CX650F RGB, 650 Watt, 80 PLUS Bronze, Fully Modular RGB White Power Supply

This is a bronze Power Supply, I am not drawing as much power as GPU mining at around 125 watts this will be good enough. White and great RGB,

Boot Drive: Sabrent Rocket Q 1TB NVMe PCIe M.2 2280 Internal SSD High Performance Solid State Drive

Go for the lower gig version of this, dont need 1tb the smallest size should surfice. I had one already from Chia Plotting.

Adapter: SSK Aluminum M.2 NVME SSD Enclosure Adapter

Great tool to have around, I used it for Chia Mining plotting on my Intel NUC. Its useful to burn HiveOS onto a SSD. Check compatibility.

Power Switch: weideer 12mm Momentary Push Button Switch Metal Chassis Switch Waterproof

Again, with the white theme I had to have a white Power Switch.

Motherboard Mount: Bewinner Open Frame Transparent Acrylic Frame Computer Case DIY Base Stand For ATX Mothboard Convenient for Testing, Overclocking or Gaming Support Longer Graphic Card

Last but not least, the pedestal to show off my new rig build. I have been thinking about putting it on a laptop stand aswell. Look for the size that corresponds to your motherboard.. Great for a test bench too.

Risers: Ubit 6-PCS PCI-E Riser 

If you are doing some GPU mining aswell, these white and red risers will fit in with the look. 

Related Articles

Home » News

AMD Radeon RX 6800 and RX 6800XT Mining Overview and Settings – 63 MH/s!


Estimated reading time: 3 minutes

The 6800xt is a great card for mining – check out our review and let us know your thoughts. Does it surpass the 5700xt? On stock settings using the Pheonix 5.2c miner, both cards showed the same hash result, which is not surprising, but different power consumption levels.

Mining Overclocks

RX 6800 XT Ethash Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): N/A
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

RX 6800 Octopus Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

RX 6800 KawPow Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 800
  • Power Limit (%): NA
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2150 or 1125
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

It is worth noting that the latest AMD drivers for video cards have a new function Memory Timings  – FAST TIMINGS, which is obviously designed to increase the performance of video cards in mining cryptocurrencies and Ethereum in particular.

Enabling this option shifts the hashrate range by 2-3Mh/s upwards (59-63Mh/s)

Opportunities for overclocking video memory in the current beta drivers are very limited – it is not possible to raise the memory frequency by more than 150MHz.

rx6800XT hashrate ethereum fast timings

Memory +150Mhz, Fast Timings -ON

Radeon RX 6800XT – 63-66Mh/s 250W

The next step is to reduce GPU power consumption

Memory +150MHZ, GPU – 550MHz (1450Mhz), Fast Timings -ON

Radeon RX 6800XT – 63-66Mh/s 170W

rx6800XT hashrate ethereum overclock

Conclusion: In the current realities, the AMD Radeon RX 6800 and RX 6800XT video cards turned out, as expected, 15% better than the previous generation in Ethereum mining, but this is on stock settings. If we take into account the rich experience of miners in fine tuning the RX 5700 (60MH/s 150W), then the advantage of the RX 6800 becomes even less obvious, especially if we take into account the difference in the price of video cards of different generations. In the near future, we may also see better mining settings for the RX 6800. First of all, this is the ability to increase the video memory frequency by more than 150MHZ and a more aggressive downvolt in the core. Do not forget about Infinty Cash, which has not yet been discounted, because mining is not limited to just one Dagger Hashimoto algorithm.

MSI Gaming Radeon RX 6800 XT 16GB GDRR6 256-Bit HDMI/DP 2285 MHz

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About this item

  • Chipset: Radeon RX 6800 XT
  • Video Memory: 16GB GDDR6
  • Memory Interface: 256-bit
  • Output: DisplayPort x 3 (v1.4) / HDMI 2.1 x 1
  • Digital maximum resolution – 7680 x 4320

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6600XT Mining Overview and Overclock Settings – 55 watts!


The AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT is an Ethereum miner’s dream producing 32 MH/s using only 55 watts.

I have recently bought 3 of these and look to invest in more due to the efficiency of the cards and they keep temperature really well.

Personally, I love these cards as there is no need to BIOS update like other AMD cards and the thermals in my small GPU farm are fine – 23 cards and growing.

These cards are all close in terms of performance, so at this point I think it all depends on price and avoiding scalpers.

Ethereum miners have been drawn to NVIDIA’s GeForce RTX 30 series cards, but AMD now has a compelling option in the shape of the Radeon RX 6600 XT. The Navi 23 card is twice as efficient as a GeForce RTX 3060, thanks to a 32 MH/s hash rate.

If you need some overclocks – here are mine on HiveOS but you should be able to get these even better by editing the VDD, please only do so in small increments at your own risk.


Mining Overclocks


RX 6600 XT Ethereum Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 640
  • Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 965
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2270 or 1135
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Kawpow – Ravencoin

RX 6600 XT KawPow Mining Overclocks:

  • Core Voltage (VDD): 640
  • Memory Controller Voltage (VDDCI): 620 (HiveOS)
  • Core Clock (CClock): 1425
  • Memory Clock (MClock): 2270 or 1135
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

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My Choice

Sapphire Technology Pulse AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

PowerColor Fighter AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT Gaming Graphics Card 

ASUS Dual AMD Radeon RX 6600 XT OC Edition 8GB GDDR6 Gaming Graphics Card 

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

Ethereum 32 MH/s - DPM 1
Core Clock (CClock): 680
Memory Clock (MClock): 1120
Fan Speed (%): 70% ± based on your temps.

According to initial mining tests, the Radeon RX 6600 XT manages 32 MH/s at 55 W when mining Ethereum, which still remains popular among crypto miners. To put those figures in perspective, the Radeon RX 6600 XT is about twice as efficient as the NVIDIA GeForce RTX 3060. In our opinion, the Radeon RX 6600 XT could become the most efficient crypto mining card of the RDNA 2 generation. The same should be the case for Ampere cards, too.

While we do not have any Radeon RX 6600 XT cards to hand, a video by Dizzy Mining has demonstrated that these values are achievable. By default, the RX 6600 XT will reach 28 MH/s while consuming 93 W. Dropping the GPU clock speed to 1.2 GHz and increasing the memory clock to 2.2 GHz improves the hash rate to 32 MH/s at 55 W, though.

Hence, the card could end up being a popular option for mining farms, which may push up prices. The Radeon RX 6600 XT is a good choice for 1080p gaming, too, with its Navi 23 GPU, 32 MB of Infinity Cache and 8 GB of GDDR6 VRAM running on a 128-bit interface.

Please also check out our 6600 XT Rig Build with a full breakdown of building a rig with 4 of these cards, ideal for beginners but do your own research as always. Check out some of our rig builds, including parts, build instructions and overclocks:-

Our Mining Rig Builds

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Bitcoin mining difficulty declines by 16%


Estimated reading time: 2 minutes

Bitcoin’s mining difficulty saw a notable decrease around Sunday midnight UTC time as the network’s hash rate has dropped significantly even before China’s bitcoin mining crackdown comment.

On-chain data shows the network’s mining difficulty adjusted to 21.05 Trillion at block height 685,440, which is a 16% drop compared to its recent all-time-high recorded on May 13.

In fact, Bitcoin’s average block production interval already increased to 11.8 minutes between May 13, the last mining difficulty adjustment date, and May 21, when China’s State Council iterated in a recent meeting that there needs to be a crackdown on bitcoin mining and trading activities in China.

That interval was 18% faster than the Bitcoin network’s intended 10-minute-per-block production time, which also means the average hash rate between May 13 and 21 already dropped to around 147 exhashes per second (EH/s).

Following the China State Council’s comment Friday last week, the seven-day moving average hash rate has remained relatively steady around the 150 EH/s level.  

As reported previously, the computing power connected to Bitcoin has declined since May 13 due to a few factors.

While some miners had started the migration process from Northern Chinese provinces to the hydro-electricity hub in Sichuan, the power plants in Sichuan have been limiting the supply to energy-intense industries including mining farms due to the delay of the rain this year. As a result, there has been a surging electricity demand from the general public, which had to be prioritized. 

It remains to be seen whether and how the Sichuan government will react to the State Council’s high-level policy signal in terms of cracking down on bitcoin mining activities. 

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Different from its counterparts in Inner Mongolia, where the energy is mostly based on fossil fuel, the Sichuan government is hosting a seminar next week to understand what the impact of a simple ban would have on the local hydropower economy. 

Meanwhile, some Chinese bitcoin miners are looking for energy capacities overseas to migrate their equipment out of China to hedge against regulatory uncertainties ahead.

How to Farm Chiacoin, the New Eco-Friendly Cryptocurrency


Can one company build a better blockchain?

Estimated reading time: 10 minutes

Earlier this month, Tesla CEO Elon Musk made a splash (and briefly tanked Bitcoin’s price) when he announced that his company would no longer accept the popular cryptocurrency as tender for its electric cars. Why not? In a tweet, Musk shared that the company “is concerned about rapidly increasing use of fossil fuels for Bitcoin mining and transactions, especially coal, which has the worst emissions of any fuel.” Cryptocurrencies are “a good idea on many levels,” Musk’s tweet said, but “this cannot come at a great cost to the environment.”

Plotter – Intel NUC10i7FNH NUC 10 Performance Mini PC Kit – Intel Core i7 Processor, Black – https://geni.us/0jCJIGu

SSD – WD_BLACK SN750 1TB High-Performance NVMe Internal Gaming SSD – https://geni.us/kB8Qjl2

RAM – Crucial Ballistix BL2K16G32C16S4B 3200 MHz, DDR4, DRAM, Laptop Gaming Memory Kit, 32GB (16GB x2), CL16, Black – https://geni.us/tsnCrucial

He’s right — traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are an environmental disaster. As of February of 2021, the BBC reported that the bitcoin network uses more electricity than the country of Argentina. The Sierra Club says that “Bitcoin produces 36.95 megatons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually” and that “as digital currencies potentially continue to increase in popularity, their environmental impact should not be overlooked.”

Chiacoin, a new cryptocurrency that fully launched in May of 2021, aims to change the association between cryptocurrencies and environmental damage. According to Chia, the organization behind it, while traditional cryptocurrency requires “expensive single use hardware that consumes exorbitant amounts of electricity,” Chiacoin is “mitigating this problem through a fair, eco-friendly, and better blockchain.” In short, Chia sees Chiacoin as a greener (and potentially more secure) alternative to existing cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin rely on a system called “proof of work.” Users create new Bitcoins through a process called mining, in which computers work hard to solve extremely complex math problems. All this work is energy-intensive by design, which is why the Bitcoin network consumes so much power and why prominent crypto influencers like Musk are moving away from it.

Chiacoin works differently. Rather than relying on proof of work to verify blockchain transactions and create coins, Chiacoin uses a technique called “proof of space.” According to Chia, “Proof of Space is a cryptographic technique where provers show that they allocate unused hard drive space for storage space.” The details get technical, but essentially to create new Chiacoins, you don’t build a powerful mining computer and run it at full power 24/7. Instead, you connect up hard drives to a simple computer, pledge their space to the Chia network, and earn Chiacoins based on how much space you’ve pledged and the total amount of space on the overall Chia network.

Chia calls the process of creating new Chiacoins “farming.” (Chia’s name is inspired by the eponymous grain, and the network is shot-through with agriculture metaphors, as we’ll soon discover). Keeping drives spinning is a far less energy-intensive operation than running the complex video cards required for traditional mining, making Chiacoin potentially more environmentally friendly than other coins. And farming the coins is something you can do at home on nearly any computer, potentially making Chiacoin accessible to a much wider range of users.

To farm some Chiacoin, start by visiting Chia’s Github page and downloading the Chia blockchain software. You can install Chia’s blockchain on Windows, macOS, Linux, and several other platforms, but I’ll focus on the Windows version. I installed Chia on a dedicated PC I built specifically for cryptocurrency mining. Chiacoin is very new, so your Windows firewall or antivirus might flag it as a virus incorrectly — press “More Info” and “Run Anyway” to allow the program to run. I found that I needed to right-click on the installer and choose “Run as Administrator” in order to get it to install properly.

When you open the software, it will prompt you to create a new wallet to store any Chiacoins that you farm. The software provides you with a 24-word mnemonic you can use to recover your wallet if you ever lose access. Write these down in their precise order and don’t share your personal words with anyone else. I snapped a photo on my phone and stored it in a secure location.

Once the Chia blockchain software is installed and you have your wallet set up, the software will set about downloading the actual Chia blockchain in its entirety, which is necessary for farming. This is time-consuming — in my case, it took about four days to fully complete. You can monitor your progress under the “Full Node” tab — the “Peak Time” will slowly move closer to the current date and time as your computer syncs with the Chia network, and when it’s complete your status will change to “Synced.” Now you can begin to farm.

Your first order of business is the build some plots. Think of plots like the individual fields on an actual farm. Suppose you wanted to farm some rutabaga. You’d have to stake out a physical field on your farm, prepare the soil, and plant seeds. Likewise, in order to begin farming Chiacoin, you need to create and prepare some plots. Instead of physical fields, though, you’ll be creating plots on your computer’s hard drive. And instead of sprinkling rutabaga seeds, you’ll be sprinkling the unused space with special cryptographic hashes which connect it to the Chia network.

To create a new plot, make sure you have a hard drive with unused space ready. Open the “Plots” tab in the Chia blockchain software, and press “Add a Plot.” Select your plot size — nearly everyone selects k32 plots, which are 101.3 gigabytes in size. I opted for this standard size because selecting a bigger plot size doesn’t provide any benefits. You can also opt to create more than one plot at the same time — in this case, you should select the option to plot in parallel, which reduces the overall plotting time on compatible computers.

You’ll then be prompted to select both a final location for your plot, and a temporary location, which will be used as your plot is built. Your temporary location needs 239 gigabytes of free space for a k32 plot. To speed up the process of plotting, some people like to use a faster solid-state drive (SSD) for their temporary location and a traditional hard drive for their final location. Be warned, though — plotting requires lots of read and write operations, and Tom’s Guide reports that plotting can quickly destroy many consumer SSDs in a matter of weeks or months.

Using traditional hard drives will likely slow down your plotting time substantially, but your hardware will wear out much slower. I used the same drive for my temporary and final location. That’s not optimal, but it still worked fine for me. Creating a plot took me about 20 hours, which appears to be a reasonable time for hard drive plotting. Creating plots on an SSD can take as little as three to four hours. Plotting times reportedly increase by a few hours if you’re creating multiple plots in parallel. You can apparently create plots on one computer and then move the drive to another one, and professional Chia miners reportedly have separate, dedicated plotting and separate farming computers.

Once your plots are ready and connected to the Chia network, you’ve officially got a Chia farm. To farm your plots, keep the Chia blockchain software open and keep your computer powered on and connected to the internet. If you’re using Windows, you’ll want to disable sleep mode, ensuring that your computer remains on at all times. This will consume some electrical power but far less than if you used the computer for traditional mining. You can even farm Chia on extremely low-power hardware like a Raspberry Pi.

You can check the status of your Chia farm in the “Farm” tab of the blockchain software. The tab shows the total size of your plots, the total number of plots you’re farming, the total amount of space connected to the Chia network, and how much Chiacoin (abbreviated as XCH) you’ve earned. Earning Chiacoins happens through a process called “harvesting.” Again, the technical aspects get complex, but Chiacoins are created by the Chia network at regular intervals, and every active plot in the Chia network has a chance of receiving each coin created. In general, the more plots you have, the higher your chance of receiving a payout.

How much can you expect to earn by farming Chiacoin? That depends on the total size of the Chia network at a given point in time as well as the value of Chiacoins. As I write this, though, according to Chia Calculator, a single Chia plot is expected to earn about $0.12 per day, or $3.63 per month. A 10 terabyte hard drive filled with Chia plots would earn about $362.76 per month. That’s pretty good — given that a 10 terabyte drive currently costs about $283, you could expect to earn back the cost of a drive in about a month of farming. You’d still have to factor in the cost of electrical power, but again, power consumption for farming is way lower than for mining, making Chia farming potentially more profitable and greener.

That’s the good news. Here’s the bad news: The Chia network is already so big and there are so many plots attached to it that if you only have a few plots, you can expect to wait a long time to luck out and actually win a Chiacoin. And I mean a really long time — as I write this, a computer with one Chia plot would take an average of 42 years to receive a single Chiacoin. Of course, you could get extremely lucky, and one could be assigned to you sooner — I’ve heard of examples of farmers who have created a single plot and earned a Chiacoin by luck. But in general, you’ll need a lot of plots to have a good chance of winning coins and having your actual earnings approach your theoretical ones. A 10 terabyte set of plots, for example, would have about a 16% chance of winning a Chiacoin in a given month as I write this.

At the moment, then, luck plays a big factor in Chiacoin earnings. But that’s set to change soon. Most cryptocurrencies aren’t mined by solo operators but rather by large “pools” of miners who combine their resources, automatically distributing any coins earned to each operator in the pool. Official Chiacoin pools aren’t here yet, but Chia says they’ll be ready by the end of May 2021. At that point, Chia farming will be far more accessible and potentially more profitable to small farmers because luck will play a much smaller role in the overall harvesting process.

Unfortunately, Chia says that once pools are released, you’ll have to recreate your plots in order to participate. That means that if you’re reading this before pools go live, you might want to wait until they’re launched to start farming to avoid having to remake all your plots. Alternatively, you can dive in now and create some plots, learn about the network, and plan to redo your plots later when pooling launches (or continue to go solo if you’re feeling lucky or have a really big farm). I’m planning to create a 10-terabyte Chia farm and experiment with running it on solar power for added green benefits.

What’s the potential long-term impact of Chia? Proof of space (sometimes called proof of capacity) coins have existed in various forms for several years, but few appear to have the institutional backing (Chia has funding from venture capital giant Andreessen Horowitz, among others) or momentum of Chiacoin. Since its launch, Chia’s price has more than doubled, and Chiacoin farming is already driving up the price of hard drives. That’s no guarantee that these trends will continue or that Chiacoin won’t tank, of course, and “momentum” could just be another word for “hype.” But it’s definitely an indication that something about the eco-friendly coin has captured the crypto community’s imagination and that the environmental impact of cryptocurrency is very much on the radar.

Whether or not Chiacoin itself becomes the dominant green cryptocurrency, it’s becoming increasingly clear that proof of work coins have a too-high environmental impact and that their ecological costs need to be addressed. Other coin algorithms like proof of stake can greatly reduce the power cost of a coin network, too, and there are compelling efforts underway to mine traditional coins using renewable resources.

In the ongoing process of making crypto more environmentally friendly, though, Chiacoin is a fascinating step forward. You probably shouldn’t bet the farm on Chiacoin or plow all your savings into hard drives, just as it’s likely not a wise choice to devote yourself full time to growing rutabaga unless you really know what you’re doing.

But much as you might grow some veggies in the backyard for fun and to gain experience, there’s a lot to be said for creating your own Chiacoin “garden” to build your knowledge of the coin and experiment with new technology. Fire up an old computer, create a few plots, and see if anything of value grows.

Nothing in this article should be construed as providing investment advice. Consult your financial advisor or another professional advisor before investing in cryptocurrencies or any other monetary instrument.

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The Best Hard Drives for Mining Chia Cryptocurrency


Estimated reading time: 11 minutes

Although Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETC) are still the most popular cryptocurrencies to mine, in the past few years, and even months, there have appeared new cryptocurrencies whose popularity has been steadily rising. One of these new cryptocurrencies is called Chia, and it is about to make a revolution of the way how we can mine cryptocurrencies.

Chia was developed by Bram Cohen, the world-renowned software developer who helped create the peer-to-peer BitTorrent protocol. Like Bitcoin and Ethereum, Chia has its own blockchain programming language called Chialisp. This programming language is designed to create decentralized application technologies, and make the process of mining widely accessible without expensive hardware or high electricity bills.

Compared to Bitcoin and Ethereum, which use a Proof of Work (Pow) model, Chia is based on a Proof of Space and Time (PoST) model. This means that Chia doesn’t rely on processing performance to mine, but on storage. With PoST model, users of the Chia blockchain “seed” unused space on their hard drives or SSDs by installing specialized software which stores a collection of cryptographic data on the disk as “plot” files. Users then scan the blocks to check what hash is closest to the cryptographic challenge, and then send the result off to a separate server called the “timelord”.

With this model, Chia aims to reduce the environmental impact of mining cryptocurrencies. Instead of using CPU or GPU power, Chia is designed to be mined with SSDs or HDDs. However, not all storage hard drives are suitable for mining Chia. Only the drives with large amounts of storage space are best suited for mining Chia, since Chia requires a lot of storage space for creating plot files. In this roundup, we’ll show you the best storage drives you can use to mine Chia cryptocurrency.

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Best Enterprise 18TB Drive:

WD Gold 18TB Enterprise Class

Best NAS 18TB Drive:

Seagate IronWolf Pro 18TB

Best Budget 18TB Drive:

WD Elements 18TB

Best Enterprise 16TB Drive:

Seagate Exos X16 16TB

Best NAS 16TB Drive:

WD Red Pro 16TB

Best Enterprise 14TB Drive:

WD Ultrastar DC HC530 14TB

Best Budget 14TB Drive:

WD My Book 14TB

Best M.2 SSD for Chia Mining:

Sabrent 4TB Rocket Q4 M.2 2280

Best SATA SSD for Chia Mining:

Samsung 870 QVO 4TB

Best Budget 4TB Drive:

Seagate BarraCuda 4TB

Best Enterprise 18TB Drive 

Capacity: 18TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 512 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • Incredibly large storage space
  • Hellium-filled hard drive
  • Real-time data correction tech
  • 512 MB cache
  • Very expensive

When it comes to mining Chia cryptocurrency, the WD Gold 18TB Enterprise Class hard drive is probably the best drive to get the job done. Built for data centers and workstations, this drive can boast with outstanding reliability, and can handle workloads of up to 550TB per year. Featuring huge 512 MB cache, and MTBF of 2.5 million hours, this is by far one of the best hard drive in its class.

The WD Gold 18TB is greatly optimized for mining Chia cryptocurrency, as it features sophisticated monitoring electronics that help correct linear and rotation vibrations in real time, and thus prevent micro data corruptions which are undesirable when hashing out Chia. The only flaw of this extraordinary hard drive is its rather high price, but it’s still cheaper then buying multiple Samsung 870 QVO 4TB SSDs

Best NAS 18TB Drive 

Capacity: 18TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 256 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • Impressively large storage space
  • Helium sealed-drive design
  • Optimized for NAS
  • Slightly lower workload rate compared to WD Gold 18TB
  • Noisy operation

Seagate IronWolf Pro 18TB is another hard drive which is very well-suited for mining Chia cryptocurrency. Just like the WD Gold 18TB, the IronWolf Pro is also an enterprise class hard drive that features helium sealed-drive design, and adheres to high security standards of cloud data centers.

Unlike the WD Gold, this drive features a smaller 256 MB cache, and is a bit cheaper. It is also able to provide somewhat lower workload rate of 300TB/year. It’s major advantage over the WD Gold is the fact that it’s optimized for NAS configurations, so if you plan to build a small Chia mining farm, this might be the best hard drive for you.

Best Budget 18TB Drive: 

Capacity: 18TB | Interface: USB 3.0 | Cache: 64 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • 18TB of storage space
  • Extremely portable
  • Competitively priced
  • Features 64 MB cache
  • Supports only USB 3.0 interface

The WD Elements 18TB is by far the cheapest 18TB hard disk drive you can get right now. However, its budget price comes with a few compromises. First of all, it is an external drive, which means it uses USB 3.0 interface which is quite slower compared to the SATA 6 Gb/s interface. It also comes with a 64 MB cache, which is quite small for a 18TB hard drive.

It remains debatable whether external hard drives are suitable for mining Chia cryptocurrency, however, according to some Reddit users, external HDDs are perfectly fine for storing Chia plot files, even when using the USB data connection. In that regard, WD Elements 18TB is thus one of the best hard drives for mining Chia, thanks to its affordable price, and decent performance.

Best Enterprise 16TB Drive: 

Capacity: 16TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 256 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • 16TB of storage space
  • Supports workloads of up to 500TB/year
  • Helium sealed design
  • Hardware-based security
  • Tends to produce a lot of heat

Although Seagate faced class action lawsuit over high hard drive failure rate in the past few years, things have changed drastically since then, as Segate’s Exos lineup of enterprise hard drives proves that this company knows how to make a reliable and affordable storage drive.

The Seagate Exos X16 TB hard drive is one such drive. Designed primarily for high-end users, this drive is perfectly suited for mining Chia cryptocurrency, as it features helium sealed design, has an MTBF rating of 2.5 million hours, and it supports workloads of up to 500TB/year. The Exos X16 also supports both 512e and 4Kn storage formats, and it features hardware-based security for increased data protection. The Exos X16 unfortunately isn’t very cheap, but high price also means better quality.

Best NAS 16TB Drive: 

Capacity: 16TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 256 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • 16TB storage capacity
  • 3D Active Balance Plus technology
  • Optimized for NAS systems
  • 5-year warranty
  • Features budget Marvell RAID controller

If you find 18TB drives to be too expensive, but still want to buy yourself a hard drive with large storage space for mining Chia cryptocurrency, then consider purchasing the Western Digital Red Pro NAS 16TB drive. Despite being around $200 cheaper than the WD Gold 18TB, the WD Red Pro is still a very reliable and high-performance hard drive that is able to suit the needs of professional NAS systems.

The WD Red Pro comes with 256 MB cache, features a workload rate of up to 300TB per year, and it ships with WD’s 5-year limited warranty. This drive can also boast with enhanced reliability thanks to its 3D Active Balance Plus technology which helps detect subtle shock events and prevent data corruption.

Best Enterprise 14TB Drive: 

Capacity: 14TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 512 MB | RPM: 7.200

  • Huge 512 MB cache
  • Helium-filled design
  • Vibration protection technology
  • Supports high workloads
  • Noisy operation

Although there are more spacious hard drives out there, the WD Ultrastar DC HC530 14TB hard drive is one of the better drives for mining Chia cryptocurrency due to its impressive specifications and real-world performance. Built specifically for data centers, this enterprise-class hard drive can boast with huge 512 MB cache, helium sealed design, and RVS technology for vibration protection.

The Ultrastar DC HC530 also supports workloads of up to 550TB per year, which makes it one of the best high-end hard drives overall, and it has a 2.5 million hours MTBF, as well as 5-year limited warranty. Special thing about the Ultrastar is that it features dual-stage actuator head positioning system, which means it can deliver a high degree of accuracy with minimum possibility of producing a data reading error.

Best Budget 14TB Drive: 

Capacity: 14TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 64 MB | RPM: 5.400

  • Large storage capacity
  • Compact dimensions
  • Affordable price
  • Spins at 5.400 RPM
  • Loud operation

WD MyBook 14TB is another external hard drive on our list of the best storage drives for mining Chia cryptocurrency. Compared to other high-capacity internal hard drives, the WD MyBook features a significantly lower price, and as such is a good alternative for Chia mining if you are on a tight budget.

The WD MyBook 14TB supports data transfers over USB 3.0 high-speed connection, and is comprised of multiple smaller 2.5-inch drives spinning at 5,400 RPM. The drive itself features a rather small cache size, so don’t expect mind-blowing performance from it. The MyBook is also a rather noisy hard drive, however, its budget price, large capacity, great portability, and RAID support make it a very good hard drive to get the job done.

Best M.2 SSD for Chia Mining: 

Capacity: 4TB | Interface: M.2 PCIe Gen4 x4 | Cache: N/A | RPM: N/A

  • Incredibly fast read and write speed
  • Supports PCIe 4.0 interface
  • Up to 5-years warranty
  • Great aesthetics
  • Could be cheaper
  • Average endurance rating

In case you don’t fancy the idea of mining Chia with mechanical hard drive, and prefer something much, much faster, then you’ll like Sabrent 4TB Rocket Q4 M.2 solid-state drive. This SSD successfully combines extreme performance with high capacity, and it won’t break your bank. Plus, it features sleek looks, and it comes bundled with free Sabrent Acronis True Image software.

There are several reasons why this drive is perfect for mining Chia. Firstly, it fully supports PCIe 4.0 interface, which allows it to deliver unprecedented read and write speeds of up to 4,900 MB/s, and 3,500 MB/s respectively. This means it can write those Chia plot files blazingly fast. Secondly, this drive features endurance rating of 800 TBW, which is very good for an NVMe drive, and it means it won’t wear out too quickly while writing Chia plot files. Finally, this drive supports secure erase functionality as well as Trim and S.M.A.R.T. data reporting, which is essential for conducting proper mining operations.

Best SATA SSD for Chia Mining

Capacity: 4TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: N/A| RPM: N/A

  • Large capacity for SSD
  • Faster than any HDD
  • Long lifespan
  • Low power consumption
  • Not as durable as some high-end NVMe drives
  • Higher price per GB of space compared to mechanical hard drives

When it comes to mining Chia cryptocurrency, mechanical hard drives are much better than solid-state drives due to their high capacity and low price per gigabyte of storage space. However, SSDs are just as good as HDDs for mining Chia, if not even better. The Samsung 870 QVO 4TB is probably one of the best SATA SSDs for this purpose, as its able to offer high performance and decent amount of storage space for a relatively reasonable price.

The 870 QVO 4TB isn’t the fastest, nor the most spacious SATA SSD available on the market. However, it is probably the most economical one. It uses SATA 6 Gb/s connection for transferring data, and it features a 4-bit MLC V-NAND flash memory. Featuring read and write speeds of up to 560 and 530 MB/s respectively, it is quite fast drive. The 870 QVO also has a lifespan of 1,440 TBW, which is very impressive. Overall, the 870 QVO is a solid buy in case you want to use SSD for mining Chia cryptocurrency.

Best Budget 4TB Drive

Seagate Baracuda 4tb

Capacity: 4TB | Interface: SATA 6 Gb/s | Cache: 256 MB | RPM: 5.400

  • Inexpensive price
  • Fairly large cache size
  • Easy to install
  • Slow performance
  • Not suitable for write-intensive workloads
  • 2-year limited warranty

Last but not least, there is the Seagate BarraCuda 4TB hard drive. Compared to other drives that we’ve listed here, this one features the smallest amount of storage space, but is also the cheapest hard drive of them all. Fast, dependable, and versatile, the BarraCuda 4TB is a perfect drive for getting into mining Chia cryptocurrency, especially if you want to invest as little money as possible into this endeavor.

The BarraCuda 4TB supports SATA 6 Gb/s connection, has a rather big 256 MB cache, and supports data transfer speeds of up to 190 MB/s. However, with low price also come some disadvantages. This drive runs at 5,400 RPM which is decent, but not as fast as 7,200 RPM. Also, it isn’t very suitable for write-intensive workloads, as its based on SMR technology. Overall, it is a decent drive, but if you plan to mine Chia seriously, then consider purchasing a more powerful and spacious drive.


Mining Chia cryptocurrency is becoming increasingly popular each day, and if you plan to jump on the bandwagon, be sure to supply yourself with a batch of high-capacity hard drives. We hope our guide helped you in search of the information you were looking for. If you seek advice, feel free to post a comment below. We will try to help you.

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Instagram is hosting a professional development panel for NFT artists


Estimated reading time: 1 minute

Instagram is hosting an event for non-fungible token (NFT) creators as part of its inaugural “Creator Week.”

The virtual program features a series of invitation-only events to solicit feedback from creators on how the Instagram and Facebook platforms can better support their content. It’s slated to run three days, from June 8-10. 

Variety first reported the event, calling it a “professional development” series for 5,000 Instagram creators.

NFT artist Sean Williams tweeted an invitation from the series for a panel entitled “A virtual creator event for visual artists and a special discussion on crypto art.” An Instagram spokesperson confirmed that the series would contain an NFT-focused event. 

In his thread, Williams said the invitation amounted to an ask for “high level business consulting” in panel form, and indicated that Instagram is looking to build out an NFT platform.

Instagram said it had “no updates to share” on whether it’s looking into building out an NFT platform. 

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Image Credit: ALEX_UGALEK / Shutterstock.com

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The liquid hard drive that could store a terabyte of data in a tablespoon of fluid


A liquid hard drive containing a suspension of nanoparticles could be used to store impressive amounts of data: 1 terabyte per tablespoon.

This article is from back in 2014 but though I would bring it back to life – could this be a future alternative for storage and crypto currencies – hopefully a shelf life is not built into it like an SSD.

Researchers from the University of Michigan and New York University have been simulating wet information storage techniques which uses clusters of nanoparticles suspended in liquid. These clusters of particles can store more data than conventional computer bits which have just two storage states: 0 and 1. The clusters of particles work a bit like Rubik’s Cubes to reconfigure in different ways to represent different storage states. A 12-particle memory cluster connected to a central sphere can have almost eight million unique states, which is equivalent to 2.86 bytes of data.ADVERTISING

The system works by having nanoparticles attached to a central sphere. When the sphere is small, the outer particles trap each other into place, storing data. If the sphere is a bit larger, the particles can be reconfigured to store different information. The team created a cluster involving four particles on a central sphere — all made of polymers. By heating the liquid up, the spheres expand and the particles can rearrange themselves in predictable ways. Although the four-particle clusters have only two distinguishable configurations (i.e. like a regular bit), the plan is create clusters with many more particles.

The simulations showed that a tablespoon of a solution containing a three percent concentration of 12-nanoparticle clusters could store a terabyte of data. This compares with the smartphone-sized device required to store this amount of data as an external hard drive.

Post-doctoral researcher Carolyn Phillips described the clusters as like Rubik’s Cubes. “You can use the same mathematics that describes a Rubik’s Cube to show that every rearrangement of the cluster’s spheres is possible and reachable.”

For liquid hard drives to become a practical reality, the team needs to work out a way to lock the clusters into the right shapes across a large volume of liquid and then read the data back with ease — currently the team is counting bits with a scanning tunnelling microscope.

These sorts of clusters could be used to detect pollutants in water or allow medical information processing to take place inside the body. Memory clusters could also allow for sensing and control in soft robots.

Before then, it’s more likely that the clusters could be used as unique identifiers for liquid materials, allowing for the tracking of controlled substances such as fuel, explosives and chemicals used to make illegal drugs.

You can read the full paper for free here, but you may have to register to view it.

Read More

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Cosmos Now Lets Blockchains Talk to Each Other With IBC Protocol


Cosmos has launched its Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol, allowing interoperability between different blockchains.

In brief

  • The Cosmos Inter-Blockchain Communication standard has been launched on Cosmos Hub.
  • The team is building a decentralized exchange for trading tokens issued on IBC-enabled blockchains.

After five years of research and development, the long-awaited Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol has been rolled out onto the Cosmos Hub. The protocol allows sovereign chains to connect and communicate with each other, enabling the transfer of tokens between Cosmos and other IBC-compatible blockchains.

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The launch on March 29 follows a successful community governance vote in support of the feature, with almost 112 million votes cast in favor of the proposal.

During the launch event, which was broadcast live, the developers also performed a live demo of IBC-powered token transfers between different Cosmos blockchains.

With the introduction of IBC on Cosmos Hub, the developers expect that the scope of possibilities for blockchain applications will be greatly expanded, since the protocol supports the transfer of both fungible and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) between chains. This opens up a slate of new possibilities, such as the creation of interchain token exchanges and NFT marketplaces.

According to Cosmos, “Permissionless transfer of tokens across chains is a historic moment on the timeline to a valuable internet of blockchains. Cosmos Hub–the heart of the interchain–will enable trade and connect sovereign chains to create a new paradigm for economic exchange.”

The team said it is already working on a decentralized exchange (DEX) that will support cross-chain functionality for IBC-compatible blockchains. Dubbed Gravity, it will act as a marketplace for trading tokens issued on IBC-enabled blockchains, such as the project’s own ATOM token, with additional support for Ethereum-based assets, wrapped BTC tokens, as well as for “any future networks that implement

A Road Five Years Long

The IBC protocol, which was added to the Cosmos Hub in February 2021 as part of the Stargate upgrade, is one of the key elements of the Cosmos platform. Others include the Cosmos SDK, which allows developers to build applications, and Tendermint–an open-source consensus protocol for creating fast and secure proof of stake blockchains.

The initial Cosmos whitepaper was published back in 2016 and envisioned an “Internet of blockchains”–a system that would allow multiple parallel blockchains to interoperate while retaining their security properties. It took the team three years to bring the project to mainnet—but it’s only now that the map of the Cosmos is starting to come together.

Top 3 SSDs For Chia Plotting


Estimated reading time: 4 minutes

With the new cryptocurrency, Chia, raising eyebrows, more and more people are trying to get in on the action. However, people are already coming up with ways to plot for Chia and are running into issues with their SSDs. Today we are going to look at cheaper SSDs for Chia plotting.

Chia plotting relies on fast storage, making SSDs the obvious choice. Flash pricing has come down making SSDs obtainable for most. For plotting though, you can’t just use any old cheap SSD. In fact, most consumer SSDs will get destroyed in the process of plotting as each plot has about a 1.4TB write hit to generate the ~110GB final file.

For perspective, many low-end consumer SSDs would only make a few hundred plots before their endurance is wiped out and the drive is trashed. That’s forgetting that most SSDs in that class would also post terrible write performance as they often leave out DRAM to save on drive cost. StorageReview has been reviewing client drives since the inception of flash and we’ll present some of the best here for your Chia plotting.

Below we listed out a chart of consumer drives (all 2TB), their endurance, their cost as of this writing, and their write performance to get an overall idea of how they will perform plotting Chia. Now, keep in mind that higher performance is not always the best. Some of the lower-end in endurance has some of the highest performance but would burn up trying to plot Chia.

Cheap SSDs For Chia Plotting

DriveTBWSustained Write Performance
Sabrent Rocket Gen 43,600 TB855 Mbs
Samsung 970 Pro Gen 41,200 TB1.78 Gbs
WD Black SN 7501,200 TB1.52 Gbs
These products are affiliated amazon links and we gain a small amount of commission.

Top 3 Cheap SSDs For Chia Plotting

There are two ways to look at this data. You either want to maximize your plots per drive, or you want to maximize your speed to plot, with a drive that has moderate endurance. In the speed kills category, the Samsung 980 Pro is the clear winner, with the WD Back SN850 pretty close behind though carries a higher price tag at the moment.  The trade-off with these two drives is that you will burn them out much faster than the highest-rated endurance drives.

On the other hand, the Sabrent Rocket offers the best endurance and good performance for its price. The next strongest endurance to performance to price is the Silicon Power US70 with just a hair slower performance. Either of these drives will produce roughly 3X more plot over their lifetime, they’ll just be half as fast to get there.

SATA only? Try a light enterprise drive like the Intel S4510. They’re widely available and not terribly expensive. For those that can support a U.2 SSD through native connectors, edge card adapter, or other means, the NVMe Intel P4510 also can be found at great pricing used.

None of these drives guarantees any better luck when farming Chia, but they probably have the best chance to help if you can’t spring for enterprise SSDs.

Chia – SSDs

With the madmax plotter now available – I don’t think its super important to get an expensive SSD – also the write speeds drop off quickly as the seem to boost the initial load and taper off after a while. Check out the madmax article below for how to set it up.

I have been successful plotting the below with all 3 SSDs with my Intel Nuc i7.

WD_Black SN750 1TB NVMe Internal Gaming SSD – Gen3


Sabrent Rocket Q 1TB NVMe PCIe M.2 2280 Internal SSD


Samsung 970 EVO Plus 500GB NVMe M.2


Madmax Article

Mastercard Survey: Two-Thirds of Millennials Increasingly Open to Using Crypto


A Mastercard survey has shown that most millennials are eager to use and learn about cryptocurrencies.

In brief

  • A Mastercard survey has found that a majority of millennials are increasingly open to using cryptocurrencies.
  • Three-quarters of millennials are interested in learning more about cryptocurrency, according to the survey.

Mastercard’s New Payments Index survey has found that cryptocurrencies have gained ground, while millennials are “primed” to jump into the industry, with two-thirds (67%) more open to using crypto than they were a year ago.

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“As global interest in cryptocurrencies as a payment method continues to accelerate, four in 10 people across North America, Latin America, and the Caribbean, the Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific say they plan to use cryptocurrency in the next year,” the survey, which was conducted across 18 markets around the world, found. 

There’s still some way to go in educating millennials about crypto, though. Per the survey, 77% of millennials are interested in learning more about crypto, while 75% of millennials agreed that they would use cryptocurrencies if they understood them better.

But cryptocurrencies are not the only digital innovation catching the eyes of consumers. Mastercard’s survey found that other technologies, like biometrics and QR codes, are taking hold too. 

Broader findings

Over 90% of Mastercard customers are considering using a form of emerging payments technology. 

According to Mastercard, the increased interest in these technologies has been fuelled by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. 

“As the world went into pandemic lockdown in 2020, consumers shifted their spending habits to embrace contactless tap-and-go payments and online shopping,” the statement said, adding that, “adoption of new payment technologies is rising, and consumer appetite for new, fast and flexible digital experiences continues to grow.”Survey: 9% Of US Teens Have Traded In CryptoAccording to a new survey by investment bank Piper Sandler, 9% of U.S. teenagers say they have traded in cryptocurrencies. The 41st iteration of Piper Sandler’s semi-annual “Taking Stock With …NewsBusinessScott Chipolina4 min read 

Mastercard’s survey also found that over 90% of consumers will consider using “at least one” emerging payment method. 

What’s more, almost two-thirds of consumers—63% to be exact—have already tried a new payment method. These consumers said they would not have made this step under “normal circumstances,” but the COVID-19 pandemic has “galvanized people to try flexible new payment options to get what they want, when they want it.” 

The Mastercard survey also found that over half of consumers would avoid businesses that did not support any kind of electronic payment system. “The pandemic made us think differently, partly out of necessity,” added Craig Vosburg, chief product officer at Mastercard.

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Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen’s Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages


On May 3, tokens stemming from the Chia network, a smart transaction blockchain created by the Bittorrent creator Bram Cohen, will start trading and transactions will be fully enabled. Rather than leveraging the proof-of-work consensus algorithm, Chia will utilize a model called proof-of-space which relies on storage. With Chia’s transactional launch pending, the project has sparked shortages over the demand for hard drives and solid-state drives (SSDs).

Chia Network Fuels High-End Hard Drive and SSD Shortages

Bram Cohen, the inventor of the popular torrenting application Bittorent has created a cryptocurrency that’s set to launch next month. Because Cohen is behind the Chia project, the pre-stages of the digital currency network have seen significant exposure since Chia was announced. Chia’s team believes that the project can allow anyone the ability to verify transactions without being dependent on “single-use hardware or a big electricity bill.”

Chia released the project’s Business White paper in February 2021 and the mainnet launched on March 19. This allowed participants to begin accessing farming rewards, but it also spurred the start of demand for hard drives and SSDs. Transactions will be enabled on May 3 and at that point in time, exchanges and brokerage services can allow people to trade chia tokens. The closer the Chia network’s transactional launch gets, the more demand grows for storage components.

The South China Morning Post (SCMP) explains that there’s been a major shortage in China when it comes to SSDs and hard drives. Chinese hard drive and SSD manufacturers are selling out quickly and product prices have skyrocketed on secondary markets.

Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen's Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages
Chia documentation says “a Proof-of-Space protocol is one in which: a Verifier can send a challenge to a Prover, and the Prover can demonstrate to the verifier that the Prover is reserving a specific amount of storage space at that precise time. The proof of space protocol has three components: plotting, proving/farming, and verifying.”

Chinese e-commerce markets like JD.com and Taobao have seen high-grade hard drive models sell out fast since the Chia mainnet launch. A customer service agent for Taobao has seen the demand spike and underscored that the customers are chia miners.

“Many people have inquired about large hard drives for chia mining in the past few days,” the Taobao agent noted. The agent also explained that brand-name equipment from Western Digital and Seagate has been experiencing shortages.

Bittorrent Creator Bram Cohen's Crypto Project Chia Sparks Hard Drive and SSD Shortages
A visual explanation of the Chia network’s Proof-of-Space protocol.

On Chinese e-commerce platforms Taobao and JD.com, multiple models of enterprise-grade hard drives with large capacity have sold out. A hard drive and SSD seller in Shenzhen called Qin explained that on secondary markets, prices on this equipment can be up to 50% to 60% higher than retail. “You can mine chia with 4TB hard drives as well because we don’t have any hard drives over 4TB in stock,” Qin stressed.

“At peak times, prices have been at least 60 percent higher than usual. Prices dropped a bit recently but they are still about 50 percent (higher than normal) now,” another vendor named Chen detailed. The Chia network’s storage incentives have increased storage product requests considerably and hard drives between 4TB and 18TB are seeing the highest demand.about:blank

Cohen’s Success With Bittorrent Has Fueled Chia Hype

Besides the hype stemming from the creator Bram Cohen and the speculation forming within the crypto community, venture capital seems interested in Cohen’s crypto as well. In 2018, Chia raised $3.4 million from Greylock, Andreessen Horowitz, and Angellist’s Naval Ravikant.

Chia could also be an Ethereum competitor as it has its own onchain programming language called Chialisp. Cohen has explained that the smart transactions Chialisp will allow range from colored coin tech, atomic swaps, multi-sig wallets, recoverable wallets, authorized payees, and more.

Cohen’s previous project which cemented his fame, Bittorrent, was sold to Justin Sun and is now owned and operated by the blockchain firm Tron. The file-sharing operation Bittorrent was reportedly sold to Tron for $126 million in 2018.

What do you think about the demand for hard drives and SSDs skyrocketing over the upcoming Chia network’s transaction launch? Let us know what you think about this subject in the comments section below.Anonymous Dogecoin Holder Donates Profits to a Dog Shelter in FloridaALTCOINS | Apr 22, 2021PINT to Tokenize Exposure to the Top Polkadot InitiativesALTCOINS | Apr 19, 2021


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2018Andreessen HorowitzBitcoinBitTorrentBram CohenChiaChia NetworkGreylockHard Drivehard drivesjustin sunNaval RavikantPoWProof of Workproof-of-space-timeProof-of-StorageSSDSSDsStoragetron

Image Credits: Shutterstock, Pixabay, Wiki Commons, Chia documentation, Seagate,

Farm Chia Coin (“XCH”) and Earn Money


How to farm Chia Coin (“XCH”) on your computer and earn some money.

What is Chia?

Chia Blockchain is a new cryptocurrency that uses Proof of Space and Time. Instead of using expensive hardware that consumes exorbitant amounts of electricity to mine cryptos, it leverages existing empty hard disk space on your computer(s) to farm cryptos with minimal resources, such as electricity.

There is a lot of enthusiasm around Chia Blockchain because it was created by Bram Cohen, who is one of the founders of BitTorrent and the creator of the torrenting concept. BitTorrent is considered as one of the most brilliant technology innovations in last two decades.

For more information, please refer to https://www.chia.net

How to Farm Chia Coin (“XCH”)


Prerequisite is easy and they are:

  • Working computer with Windows, MacOS or Linux installed. It is recommended to use a newer computer with SSD.

NOTES: There is no need to use a dedicated computer to farm chia coin. Just use computer you use on a regular basis. Chia will farm chia coin in the background. Desktop computer is preferred over laptop because it is harder to move laptop around with attached external drives(s).

  • Free disk space of 250 GB or greater on your computer with Solid State Drive (“SSD”). You can also use external SSD (e.g., Samsung T7 Portable SSD) if your free disk space is less than 250 GB. SSD is 10x (in read) to 20x times (in write) faster than HDD.
  • External Hard Disk Drive (“HDD”) where bigger the size is better. Popular size is 18 TB as of time of this article.
  • Chia Blockchain software.

Plotter – Intel NUC10i7FNH NUC 10 Performance Mini PC Kit – Intel Core i7 Processor, Black – https://geni.us/0jCJIGu

SSD – WD_BLACK SN750 1TB High-Performance NVMe Internal Gaming SSD – https://geni.us/kB8Qjl2

RAM – Crucial Ballistix BL2K16G32C16S4B 3200 MHz, DDR4, DRAM, Laptop Gaming Memory Kit, 32GB (16GB x2), CL16, Black – https://geni.us/tsnCrucial

NOTES: Both SSD and HDD price went up recently due to popularity of Chia Blockchain, which was launched on March 19, 2021. In fact, there is scarcity of both SSD and HDD in China.

Install Chia Blockchain software

To install Chia Blockchain software:

NOTES: I will be using Windows since majority of people use Windows at home.

  1. Navigate to https://www.chia.net on your browser.
  2. Click on “Install Chia Blockchain” button, which will navigate you to INSTALL · Chia-Network/chia-blockchain Wiki · GitHub
  3. Click on Install the Windows installer — “Chia Blockchain Windows” link to download “ChiaSetup” software.
  4. Click on “ChiaSetup” software to install.
  5. “ChiaSetup” will install Chia Blockchain software on your computer for you automatically. It installs software on /Users/Your Username/.chia directory.
  6. When Windows Defender Firewall prompts for access, click on “Allow access” button.

You have installed Chia Blockchain software on your computer!

Setup Chia Blockchain software

  1. Click on “CREATE A NEW PRIVATE KEY” button.
  2. Chia Blockchain software will create a new wallet for you with a series of mnemonics words as show below. Make sure you use your smartphone to take a picture to store this key somewhere safe.

NOTES: Please do not use the above wallet key. This is provided as reference purposes only.

3. Click “NEXT” button to start using Chia Blockchain software. If Windows Defender Firewall prompts for access, click on “Allow access” button.

4. You will be navigated to the main screen, also called “Full Node” as shown below.

5. First thing Chia Blockchain software does is to synchronize (i.e., catchup with the recent changes in Chia Blockchain — i.e., Blocks) with Chia Blockchain. This will take hours to complete. It is expected that both numbers — 1344 and 47773 will change while synching. When synching is completed, the status will change to “Synched” as shown below.

Plot Chia Blockchain

There are two distinct parts of being a Chia farmer. First you will need to create a series of plots then you can farm those plots to be rewarded with Chia Coin (“XCH”). For more information on plotting, please refer to https://www.chia.net/2021/02/22/plotting-basics.html.

In this section we are going to focus on the process of creating Chia plots. Always plot using SSD since this is very disk intensive operation and it will take exponentially longer time on HDD.

  1. To create plots, navigate to “Plots” screen as shown below.

2. Click on “ADD A PLOT” button to create a plot.

The following are recommended settings:

a. Plot Size: It should be 101.4GiB (k=32, temporary space: 239Gib) as recommended by Chia Network. You can select different plot sizes, but it will take exponentially longer to create a plot and more than 90% of plots in the network are k=32.

b. Choose Number of Plots: This depends on how much free disk space you have on your SSD since each plot needs about 250GiB to complete. Use this as your guide:

  • 270Gib Free Diskspace on SSD: 1 Plot
  • 540Gib Free Diskspace on SSD: 2 Plots
  • 810Gib Free Diskspace on SSD: 3 Plots
  • 1,080Gib Free Diskspace on SSD: 4 Plots
  • 1,350Gib Free Diskspace on SSD: 5 Plots

…and more

NOTES: Always select “Plot in Parallel” with (between 0 minute to 60 minutes) delay to complete more plots at shorter time. In my experience, plotting one plot or up to four plots in parallel takes about same amount of time. So, plot as many as you can in parallel.

c. Select Temporary Directory: Select a directory on your SSD.

d. Select Final Directory: Select a directory on your external HDD. SSD is used to create plots, not to farm plots.

e. Finally, click on “CREATE PLOT” to create a plot. It is expected to take between 6 to 12 hours in average to complete a plot. If you are plotting more than three plots in parallel, then your computer resource, such as CPU and RAM will be taxed more.


  1. As of time of this article, plotting stalls in two places. It seems to stall at both 31% and 100% for a long time. This is expected and you should not be alarmed. 31% represents phase 2/4 process where the status will not change until phase 2 is completed, maybe a bug. 100% represents the fact plotting is completed and moving completed plot file from SSD to HDD. It could take up to 1 hour to move the completed plot file.
  2. If plot fails for any reason(s) then you will need to start the plot process from the beginning. Be sure to delete any temp files in Temporary Directory since they will not get deleted.
  3. Plot file is named as “plot-k32-yyyy-mm-dd-hh-mm-[a series of alphanumeric words].plot” and they are about 108.9 GiB in size.
  4. Four phases of plotting are:
  • Computing table (table 1 to 7)
  • Backpropagating table (table 1 to 7)
  • Compressing table (table 1 to 7)
  • Write checkpoint tables

Farm Chia Blockchain

To farm Chia Blockchain, you do not have to do anything since all completed plot(s), starts farming right away where you can compete to be rewarded with Chia Coin (“XCH”).

This is where it gets interesting where it becomes never ending arms races to plot more so you can increase Total Size of Plots of your farm to increase your chance of being rewarded with Chia Coin (“XCH”), against all other farms on the network, which is growing exponentially.

To estimate how much you can earn from farming the Chia Coin (“XCH”), please refer to a nice online worksheet at Chia Calculator — How much can I earn farming Chia?

To see how fast Chia Blockchain is growing, please refer to Chia Explorer => Chia cryptocurrency blockchain explorer (chiaexplorer.com).

How Do I Get Rewarded in Chia Coin (“XCH”)?

Your Chia farm will have 4,608 chances per day to win 2 Chia Coin (“XCH”). To be rewarded Chia Coin (“XCH”), your plot needs to pass the filter then compete with all other passed plots for best proof of space to be rewarded Chia Coin (“XCH”).

  1. Plots Passed Filter: There is an algorithm that ensures your plot has 1/512 chances of being passing a filter where a plot should pass the filter about eighteen times in 24-hour period.

NOTES: You should see regular occurrences of your plots passing the filter, like 1 / Number of plots in your farm, instead of 0 / Number of plots in your farm.

  1. Proofs Found: Once a plot passes the plot filter, it then competes for the best proof of space with every other plot that also passed that plot filter. Only thing each plot is competing is to have the best proof of space where the chances of getting a reward depend on total size of plots in your farm.

NOTES: A plot is a set of Proofs of Space where there are about 40 Proof of Spaces per plot.

Some Chia farmers get lucky where they are awarded with Chia Coin (“XCH”) with just one plot as shown below.

In most instances, your results will vary.

How Much Would I Earn from Chia Coin (“XCH)

Currently, there is no pricing on Chia Coin (“XCH”). It is expected that transactions of Chia Coin (“XCH”) will be enabled on May 3rd, 2021, where we may find some more clarity at that time.

Meanwhile, there are some futures market(s) that are trading Chia Coin (“XCH”) IOUs. I am not familiar with these futures market, so I have no comments on this.

Chia Farmer Pools

When mining cryptocurrency, most people join existing farmer pools (i.e., many Chia farmers working together to win Chia Coin (“XCH”)) to increase their chances of winning that cryptocurrency.

As of time of this article, pooling is not officially supported, but the biggest Chia farmer, who is winning 30% (formerly 25%) of all Chia Coins (“XCH”) currently is a Chia Farmer Pool in China.

It is more than likely you will not be able to re-use plots you have plotted and copy them to the Chia Farmer Pool. You will need to re-plot when you join Chia Farmer Pool.

Other Considerations in Farming for Chia Coin (“XCH”)

The following are some other considerations when farming for Chia Coin (“XCH”):

  1. Try to minimize stopping and re-starting Chia Blockchain software as much as possible since it could take up to 1 hour or more to complete synchronization. You will not be able to farm until synchronization is completed.
  2. When farming for Chia Coin (“XCH”) on Windows computer, change power setting to “Never” Sleep.
  3. When you want to expand your Chia Farm operation, you may want two or more computer setup where one or more computer(s) are dedicated to plotting (i.e., Chia Harvester) and another computer is dedicated to Chia Farming.
  4. You can have multiple computer(s) running Chia Blockchain software using same key. Instead of creating a new wallet, select “IMPORT FROM MNEMONICS” and enter twenty-four mnemonics words in correct order.
  5. Plotting is faster on Linux computer (tested on Ubuntu with same hardware configuration as Windows), compared to Windows computer.
  6. When you uninstall Chia Blockchain software on Windows computer, the wallet keys are not deleted. You will have to delete wallet keys using Chia Blockchain software via “DELETE ALL KEYS” option.
  7. Chia Blockchain software is not fully matured software where we are seeing latest version of software releasing every few days or even on same day.

Start farming Chia Coin (“XCH”) and prosper!

RTX 3060 TI – A Great Mining GPU – 60 MH/s


The 3060 Ti non lhr model was available in late 2020. It quickly sold out and has since been made lhr on all new models. I tried to get one of these but currently it is heavily scalped. It had a limited supply then and now its very hard to get at a decent price.

If I could get one at close to RRP, I would snap it up for my collection. In my view this is on par with the 3070 Non LHR in terms of hash rate.

If you want to check if a GPU is non lhr there are a number of steps, here is a guide from Nicehash.

Mining Hashrates

Lets talk about hashrates, this card performs well on Ravencoin as well as Eth. Considering that Ethereum 2.0 is coming up this a decent use case for the card for this purpose.

CoinAlgorithmHashrateWatts (System)
EthereumEthash60 Mh/s120 Watts
RavencoinKawpow22.45 MH/s130 Watts

Mining Overclocks

Next, we will discuss overclocks, please adjust overclocks in small increments to find the ideal sweet spot for your GPU. Some GPUs will perform differently due to the silicone lottery so please do your own research.

If two numbers are provided, first will be for Windows the second will be for a Linux-based Mining OS.

Ethereum Mining Overclocks

  • Core Voltage (VDD): NA
  • Power Limit (%): 60or 130w
  • Core Clock (CClock): -200
  • Memory Clock (MClock): +1200 or 2400 
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.

Ravencoin Mining Overclocks

  • Core Voltage (VDD): NA
  • Power Limit (%): 60% or 130w
  • Core Clock (CClock): 100
  • Memory Clock (MClock): +1000 or 2000
  • Fan Speed (%): 70% or more/less based on your temps.

Mining Profitability Ethereum

Recommended Rig